World War II and Cold War Key Terms
Adenauer, Konrad - As the first chancellor of West Germany, Konrad Andenauer was pro-individual. Although he hated communism, he supported some welfare programs because he was very pragmatic. He was also a big supported of the European Coal and Steel Community, which led to the European Union. (Laura)
Atlantic Charter- This agreement was laid out by the Allies during 1941 to discuss the aims of these countries in this war. They agreed to not seek territorial expansion, free up trade, promote global cooperation, and respect the sovereignty of other nations. Lots of fun stuff. These policies were an outline for the postwar world and provided the Allies with justification and purpose in the war effort. Helped them feel good about what they were doing morally (Shredder).
Battle of Britain - The Battle of Britain during the year 1940 was an air battle for England fought between the RAF (Britain’s royal air force) and Germany’s Luftwaffe. The struggle was the first major campaign fought entirely by air forces. Germany failed to reach its goal of outright destroying Britain’s air defences, and Germany’s failure is considered to be a major defeat and turning point of World War II. (Mackenzie)
-RAF- RAF, the Royal Airforce, was fighting against the German airfoce, the Luftwaffe, during the Battle of Britain from July to Oct. 1940. The RAF had radar which enabled them to see the enemy coming, Enigma, and they rate at which they could build planes was very high. The RAF was a key factor in helping the Brittish during WW2. Sarah Tomlin
Battle of Midway
Battle of Stalingrad - During the Battle of Stalingrad, Nazi Germany fought the Soviet Union for control of Stalingrad. German general Paulus failed when a Soviet counterattack encircled him and his men. The battle was extremely bloody, with overall casualties amounting to over two million. The Nazis never fully recovered from this failure, and from then on, they won no further major victories in the East. (Mackenzie)
de Beauvoir, Simone
The Second Sex- Written by Simone de Beauvoir in 1949, "The Second Sex" wasnt no soley a feminist book trying to advance female roles, but also a direct commentary on the "inherent patriarchal limitations of the modern world." Sarah Tomlin
Berlin Airlift June 1948-May 1949) - Stalin established a blockade of West Berilin in an attempt to subjugate all of Berlin under Soviet control. The USA and West Germany countered by resupplying West Berlin through an a massive airlift during which over 200,000 planes provided over 4700 tons of daily necessities. Stalin eventually backed off in May 1949 (without a war), making this essentially the crowning moment for Kenan's Containment policy. (Chuma)
Berlin Wall - The Berlin Wall was a well fortified wall put up around West Berlin. It was put up to keep the East Berlin citizens from emmigrating because East Berlin was losing too much of its population. People went to many extremes to try and get over the wall and escape East Berlin because conditions were so bad there. (Laura).
Brinksmanship- This was a foreign policy never openly embraced or advocated by the Soviet Union and the USA, yet was more or less a common aspect of the Cold War. With mutually assured destruction always in the back of everyone's mind, brinksmanship was refusing to yield even when lack or agreement could end in the destruction of the world. The best example of brinksmanship was during the Cuban Missile Crisis when at one point The US and USSR were on the point of World War III since neither side wanted to budge (Shredder).
- Imre Nagy
- George Kennan - he was the American diplomat in Moscow, and his 1946 "Long Telegram" he proposed his approach to foreign diplomacy known as Containment, which described Russians as insecure, rendering diplomacy with them ineffecitve. Instead, the US was to counter every act of Soviet aggression with a commensurate act of American aggression, essentially the opposite of appeasement. (Chuma)
Cuban Missile Crisis - After the failure of the Bay of Pigs, an attempt to remove Fidel Castro from power, the USSR placed nuclear bombs in Cuba which led to a state of brinksmanship. Khrushchev eventually backed down and removed the missiles from Cuba on the condition that the US also remove their bombs from Turkey. (Hannah)
- Fidel Castro
De Gaulle, Charles - Charles de Gaulle came back into power after the war in Algeria caused the government to collapse. Charles de Gaulle agreed to take power only if a 5th republic was created where the president held more power. Though the people liked him, he was controversial because France was under the impression that he would win the Algerian war, but instead he granted Algeria independence. De Gaulle hated communism and disliked America. He pulled out of NATO military command, but he did secure the Franco-German Friendship. (Laura)
Free France - Free France refers to the exiled government of France, located in London, that resisted German occupation of France during World War II. Led by Charles de Gaulle, the Free French forces were ultimately able to unify most of their resistance forces and fight for the liberation of France. (Mackenzie)
Marshall Plan (April 1948-December 1951) - Organized by Secretary of State George C. Marshall, this was a massive economic stimulus package from America to 17 countries in Western Europe. Its purpose was to prop up war-torn economies in Western Europe in order to prevent countries like France and Great Britain falling into the hands of Communism in the face of economic hard times. The plan was a success. Communism did not spread to Western Europe, GNP rose almost 25%, and faith in democratic governments was renewed in Western Europe. (Chuma)
NATO - Short for North Atlantic Treaty Organization, it was a defensive military alliance among the US, Western Europe, and Canada formed in the big year: 1949. Largely prompted by the Berlin Blockade, the alliance symbolized a promise to Western Europe that the US had its back in the face of Cold War communist aggression. (Chuma)
Nuremburg Trials - As part of the denazification of Germany these trials were meant to hold those responsible after the Holocaust. Of the 24 people who went to trial, 21 were deemed guilty and 10 were executed. (Hannah)
“Peaceful Coexistence” - Unlike Stalin's believe that the US and USSR could not avoid war, Khrushchev's believe that the US and USSR could coexist without war. (Hannah)
- Alexander Dubcek
Potsdam Conference- Lasting from July 1945 - August 1945, the Potsdam Conference included Stalin from the USSR, Truman from the United States, and Clement Atlee from Great Britain. During this conference, Truman told Stalin of the Trinity Test, hoping to spark some fear in the USSR's eyes, but secretly Stalin already knew of it. The security council was also formed consisting of 5 perminant leaders from the United States, USSR, Great Britian, France, and China. Sarah Tomlin
Rommel, Erwin- Erwin Rommel was one of Hitler's best military officers during World War II and was called the "Desert Fox" for his exploits in Northern Africa. He was later moved to Europe to lead the German defenses along the Atlantic. He anticipated that the Allies were merely faking a plan to invade at the narrowest point and would instead invade elsewhere. Eventually he became fed up with Hitler and was involved in a plot to assassinate him. This didn't go so hot although since he was a Field Marshall, he had the option to commit suicide instead of being executed (Shredder).
Secret Speech (Khrushchev) - This speech was what helped Khrushchev secure power. It was monumental because he was the first to speak out against Stalin's abuses, calling him a dictator. Khrushchev was the last of the true believers, the ones who felt true communism was possible. As a political cover for speaking out against Stalin, Khrushchev embraces Lenin. This is the origin of destalinization and in this speech, Khrushchev also alludes to the concept of peaceful coexistance. (Laura)
Tito (Josip Broz)
Truman Doctrine -The Truman Doctrine promised US economic and military aid to countries threatened by communist takeover. The Doctrine advocated for the US to assist Greece and Turkey in order to prevent the Soviet Union from establishing a communist sphere of influence in those countries. (Mackenzie)
- Greek Civil War
Vichy France- Vichy France was the region of France that was never invaded and controlled by the Nazis directly, but was instead led by a Nazi sympathizing government. Led by Philippe Petain, this state cooperated with the human rights abuses and extreme anti-semitism of the Nazis and actually exceded quotas for rounding up Jews to be slaughtered (Shred).
- Final Solution- At the Wannsee Conference in January, 1942, the discussion of the final solution was a main topic which discussed the question of the Jews and how they would "finialize the solution" to the Jewish problem. They said they were "evacuating" them, rather than the inevitable murder or killing of them. They was a large reliance on extermination camps like Auschuwitz and Dachua. Appoximately 6.2 million Jews were killed with Hitler's final solution. Sarah Tomlin
Warsaw Pact - Created in 1955, was in reaction to NATO, between the US, W Ger, and Canada, and joined the USSR and Eastern Europe in a defensive military alliance against capitalism. (Hannah)