World War II And Cold War 1st Period

World War II and Cold War Key Terms

Konrad Adenauer: Served as the 1st Chancellor or West Germany from 1949 to 1969, leading them to prosperity by rebuilding the economy with liberal democratic reforms. Adenauer hated communism, lived through and hated Nazism, and was a supporter of individualism. He instituted significant socialist reforms, understanding that the government needed to create a safety net for its citizens. His policies helped him become friendly with the U.S. and France by becoming a NATO member and committing to a western-oriented foreign policy. —-TB

Atlantic Charter: Allied document outlining their vision for the post-WWII world. They wanted to give liberated nations access to raw material, allow them to keep their territory, restoration of self-government, global cooperation to secure better economic, reduction of trade restrictions, freedom of the seas, disarmament of aggressor nations, and most famously, freedom from fear and want. —-TB

Battle of Britain - The Battle of Britain- While Hitler wanted England to surrender, it was clear that England was not adept enough to fight the Germans. Through Operation Sea Lion, the Germans attempted to use their air force, the Luftwaffe, to gain control over the skies and the English Royal Air Force. The Battle of Britain began in July of 1940 because the Germans were trying to bomb the British military bases. British did not surrender because they had several advantages with a radar system and the enigma (a special device invented to break the German code). (Lauren Burton)

Battle of Midway - During the Battle of Midway (June 4-7, 1942), the Japanese attacked Midway Atoll and were beat back by the US Navy in a decisive American victory, enabled in part by codebreaking that told the US the date and location of the upcoming attack. The Japanese fleet was permanently weakened, beginning Japan's decline by attrition as the US outpaced the Japanese in both shipbuilding and pilot training. (Jane Wester)

Battle of Stalingrad-The Battle of Stalingrad occurred during the impending decline of the Nazi regime and the Axis powers. During the German’s failure to invade the USSR, the Germans took over the city of Stalingrad in November of 1942, but were surrounded by Soviet troops. Hitler demanded that the German troops would fight until there was no man left standing. In February of 1943, German official Paulus surrendered and the Germans lost 800,000 men and the Soviets 1.1 million men. After the Battle of Stalingrad, Stalin called for an opening on the Western Front, hence the D-Day invasion by the American forces. (Lauren Burton)

de Beauvoir, Simone - Simone de Beauvoir was a French activist and existentialist philosopher whose ideas shaped modern feminism. She wrote extensively and in 1949 published a feminist treatise, The Second Sex. The book analyzed historical treatment of women and can be seen as a foundation for second-wave feminism. (Jane Wester)

Berlin Airlift - Beginning in June of 1948 and ending in May of 1949, The Berlin Airlift was a successful application of the 'containment' policy outlined by Kennan. The crisis began when Stalin, wanting to take all of Berlin, cut off all access to West Berlin in an attempt to siege/starve-out the city into submission. The United States responded by airlifting a massive amount of supplies to the West Berliners. After almost a year, Stalin, who now looked pretty bad, begrudgingly chose to back off rather than take more aggressive steps that could have sparked war. -DavisHeniford

Berlin Wall - The berlin wall was a barrier surrounding West Berlin that prevented East Germans form entering West Berlin.The barrier stood form 1961 until 1989. Along with the much longer Inner German Border that separated East and West Germany the Berlin Wall came to symbolize the iron curtain that separated East and West Europe. (Connor Haines)

Beveridge Report - The Beveridge Report was crucial in setting up a "welfare state" in the UK. The report was named for economist William Beveridge, who chaired the committee that produced the report. Beveridge identified five "Giant Evils" in society (squalor, ignorance, want, idleness, and disease) and proposed reforms to alleviate them. The report was very popular with the British public and was influential in the reforms in nationalized insurance, healthcare, pensions, rent control, etc. that passed after the war. (Jane Wester)

Very outspoken, Sir William Beveridge proposed his report that specifically wanted to eliminate want from society, and he ended up creating a social security system in England. Some view Beveridge as a socialist in a capitalist state. He took surveys of British people and for example found that women were struggling financially following the birth of a child, so Beveridge made a social safeguard of maternity. (Robert Jessell)

Brandt, Willy - Willy Brandt (1913-1992) was a German statesman who lead the German Social Democratic Party from 1964 to 1987. He also served as chancellor of the Federal Republic of Germany from 1969 to 1974. He received the Nobel Peace Prize in 1971 for to his efforts in reconciling West Germany and the countries of the Soviet Union. (Connor Haines)

Ostpolitik - The process of normalizing relations between East and West Germany, known as Ostpolitik (short for Neue Ostpolitik, "new eastern policy"), began in 1969. Willy Brandt, chancellor at the time of West Germany, began the policy. (Jane Wester)

Brinksmanship: Brinksmanship was used by both the USSR and USA as a tactic to uphold their reputations of strong, unyielding enemies. This strategy consisted of inching closer to the edge of nuclear war in a kind of diplomatic dare-off. During the Cuban Missile Crisis, however, this brinksmanship turned into diplomatic talks as Khrushev removed missiles from Cuba and the USA secretly removed their missiles from Turkey. (KatieMayo)

The term was coined by Secretary of State John Foster Dulles who served under Eisenhower. If nuclear war occurs, the result was believed to be mutually assured destruction, implying that threats by both parties must be legitimate. While JFK and Khrushchev made threats with increasing force without action, both parties possessed the fire power to carry out what they were threatening. —-TB

Budapest, 1956-Although officially under the Iron Curtain and under control by the Soviet Union, a reform movement broke out in Budapest in 1956 and called for the end of the one party system. The leader of the reform movements was Imry Nagy, a man that was previously kicked out of Hungary for resisting collectivization, but was brought back again during the reform era. Nagy called for Hungary to leave the Warsaw Pact. After the people began to rally behind the reform movement, the Hungarians believed that the Americans would save the Hungarians from the Soviet troops. This was a deadly mistake for the Hungarians because the Soviets came into Budapest to destroy the rebellion and Nagy was killed. Nagy was replaced by Jamos Kadar who was known as the “Butcher of Budapest”. (Lauren Burton)

Containment: Containment is the foreign policy doctrine founded by George Kennan theorizing that the best way to handle Soviet aggression, political or economic, is to hit back. By no means is this doctrine about using military force, but rather explains that when dealing with stubborn radicals who exercise unlimited control over their country the best political strategy is one in which you do not allow them to get what they want whenever they want it. Kennan specifically stresses that diplomacy doesn’t work because they have no reason to cooperate and that traditional multilateral cooperation doesn’t suit the Soviets. –Richmond

- George Kennan: Kennan’s “Long Telegram,” written in 1946, was reprinted in Foreign Affairs a year later and became Truman’s strategy for countering Soviet aggression. In his writing, Kennan refers to the USSR as an insecure threat to the capitalist world that is incapable of working through diplomacy. This led to actions such as the Berlin Airlift in 1948 and Truman’s doctrine of containment. (KatieMayo)

The main imposer of containment, Kennan posed as "Mr. X" in his famous telegram, and it is important to note that he had direct experiences with the Soviet Union. In 1946, he was a man who worked in the Soviet Union as part of a foreign affairs branch, so Kennan had a lot of credibility. He saw firsthand what Stalin was capable of and how he could do it. His letter to the US Department of State called for long-term patience but short-term firmness against communism. (Robert Jessell)

Cuban Missile Crisis — this was post bay of pigs, when Fidel aligned his commy state with Moscow. Moscow placed missiles in Cuba to be able to reach America in the same way that US turkey missiles could reach Russia. This lead to debates, etc, tension, and ultimately the missiles in Cuba are removed (secretly, the US turkey missiles are gone too). [Louis Stephens]

It is important to note how the Bay of Pigs incident is specifically what pushed Fidel Castro towards the Soviet Union. Before then he had tried to remain independent of either "side" but America's aggressive move put an end to that. This is an example of Brinksmanship gone wrong, and the Cuban Missile Crisis is a well implemented form of Brinksmanship. Matt Borin

- Fidel Castro: The Cuban Missile Crisis of 1962 occurred following the placement of American missiles in Turkey that could reach the USSR and the failure of the Bay of Pigs (when USA tried to oust Cuba's new communist leader Fidel Castro in 1959). This incident exemplifies brinksmanship, the strategy of countries to run right at the edge of nuclear war instead of backing down. However, brinksmanship would assuredly bring about mutually assured destruction of both nations. Although Khrushchev was being pressured by hard-line military leaders, he eventually resorted to diplomacy and backed down. After the USSR removed their missiles from Cuba, America also removed their missiles from Turkey. (katieMayo)

De Gaulle, Charles: He creates the 5th republic of France which gives more power to the president, which is him. His first move as president is to remove France's colonial presence in Algeria. (Beuler)
-It’s also important to understand that Charles de Gaulle was the former general for the Free France Movement, the group of French citizens who resisted Nazi occupation through military means. During this movement, he develops a tremendous base of French support, though that will decline as the people feel more and more distant from him, and a distaste for Americans. During his reign he attempts to play India in remaining independent of the two superpowers, although he does join American efforts to keep the Soviet Union at bay because he hates communism more, and pursues socialist economic policies. –Richmond

Free France - After Hitler invaded and occupied all of France (Expect Vichy), the French government went into exile in London. The United States and the British looked at the representatives of the Free France movement as the true government body that accurately expressed the opinions and wishes of the French people. Charles de Gaulle was a part of the Free France Forces who believed in resistance to the Germans at all costs. Sadly, Gaulle was a tad cocky so the British and US were not too big of fans of him, but he is seen as a French hero today. Despite all the Free France efforts, the reality is that the majority of France ended up having to corporate with Germany. (Ellie Sheild)

Marshall Plan: Following WWII, the Marshall Plan, also known as the European Recovery Plan, was initiated by John C. Marshall, who saw that economic downfall would lead to further political, social, and economic problems. The Marshall Plan not only sought to aid Europe economically, but also served in the containment of communism, as people are less likely to turn to radical forms of government during times of economic prosperity. Although the Plan was offered to everyone, the Soviet Union and its Eastern Bloc refused it. In the 17 countries that accepted it, the GNP increased 15-20%. (Meaghan Shimota)

NATO: The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) was the defense military alliance created in 1949. This alliance composed of Western European nations, the United States of America, and Canada was organized in an effort to combat aggressive Soviet expansion. To combat NATO, the U.S.S.R. formed the Warsaw Pact with other Eastern European nations in 1955. (Meaghan Shimota)

Nuremburg Trials - The Nuremburg Trials were military tribunals held in Nuremburg, Germany between November of 1945 and October of 1946. These trials prosecuted many prominent members of the Nazi party for war crimes, and were part of the de-Nazification process of Germany after WWII. In total, 21 were found guilty and 10 were executed. Goring, the highest ranking Nazi official put on trial, was found guilty but committed suicide the night before his execution. -DavisHeniford

Oppenheimer, Robert: Robert Oppenheimer (1904-1967) led the Manhattan Project, which was the secret coalition organized by the United States government to build the atomic bomb. Based in Los Alamos, New Mexico, Oppenheimer and his team were the first to successfully discover the atomic bomb, testing it with the Trinity Test in July of 1945. After the successful trial, it was determined that this new sophisticated weaponry was functional and would be used to end the war in Japan with less American casualties. (Meaghan Shimota)

He is known to be quite quirky. In the book "Outliers: A Story of Success" Matthew Gladwell talks about Oppenheimer's attempt to poison one of his professors; nevertheless, his genius was admired. He also stormed out of a meeting with Harry Truman when the president refused to allow him to share information about the bomb, justifying his want to do so with his belief that science shouldn't be limited. —-TB

Peaceful Coexistence”: This was the foreign policy created by Krushchev that stated that while the USSR and the U.S. would not be allies the USSR would make a concerted effort to avoid conflict with the U.S. This plan was made at the same time as his plan of "destalinization." One example of "peaceful coexistence" in practice was the cultural exchanges between the USSR and the U.S. (Beuler)

You also have to recognize what a step back this is from Stalin’s foreign policy doctrine. Khrushchev does a complete 180 from Stalin’s vision of the world as Communism v. Capitalism and the two being mutually exclusive. This turn around will lead to dissent from Soviet hardliners who will oust Khrushchev and put in Brezhnev and will lead to a more stubborn and rigid anti-western sentiment. –Richmond

Prague Spring”: The Prague Spring occurred in 1968 in the Czech Republic and was led by Alexander Dubcek. It was called the prague spring because Alexander Dubcek aimed to "thaw" the icy grip of socialism and instead create "socialism with a human face." However, Brezhnev sent in tanks to stop the rebellion, massacred tons of people, and arrested Dubcek based on his new policy called the "Brezhnev Doctrine." (Beuler)

While most in the USSR avoided all conflict with the much more powerful Russia, the aforementioned Dubcek feared none of this. He actually got a good amount of support on his side, something the Russian government and Brezhnev did not foresee. Yet from a foreign perspective, the Americans never came in to help the Czechs, and Brezhnev had his way. However, the issue did show the world how unwilling Russians were to let anyone break away from the Warsaw Pact. (Robert Jessell)

Potsdam Conference - Held in July and August of 1945, this conference is a good starting mark to some of the issues later faced during the Cold War. The Conference involved a new “Big Three” consisting of Stalin, Trumann (now that FDR passed away), as well as Clement Atlee (because Churchill did not win the election). It is at this conference that the Security Council of the United Nations is formed, with more or less a defensive alliance. The UN initially included the US, USSR, Great Britain, France, and China. Unbeknownst to Truman, Stalin already knew of US’s project for creating nuclear weaponry because of his spies (including Julius & Ethel Rosenberg). But Truman did not want to ruin the trust of their alliance so he chose to tell Stalin about the successful Trinity
Test. (Ellie Sheild).

Rommel, Erwin - Erwin Rommel (1891-1944) was a German field marshal who became a most popular German general during WWII, and even gained the open respect of his enemies for his victories as commander of the Afrika Korps during. He earned the nickname “The Desert Fox.” He was a humane officer who ignored orders to kill Jewish soldiers and civilians, and was never accused of war crimes. Later, he was implicated in a plot to assassinate Hitler. He was a national hero so Hitler eliminated him quietly, allowing him to commit suicide instead of standing trial. (Connor Haines)

Sartre, Jean-Paul - Jean-Paul Sartre (1905-1980) was a French novelist, playwright, and perhaps the best known philosopher of the 20th century. He was an proponent of existentialism. He was awarded the Nobel Prize for literature in 1964, but declined it. (Connor Haines)

Secret Speech (Khrushchev): Following Stalin's death in 1953, Khrushchev solidified his power. In 1956, he delivered his Secret Speech to the leaders of the Soviet communist party. In his speech, he urged the de-Stalinization of the U.S.S.R., ending the purges and encouraging an effort to better the government's relationship with the people. Throughout this speech, Krushchev, the last of the "true believers" in Soviet communism, idolized Lenin and his policies, further encouraging the de-Stalinization. (Meaghan Shimota)

The Secret Speech of Khrushchev played into his idea of a new peaceful coexistence, although that policy was often ignored by Khrushchev himself. Still, his love for Lenin was somewhat genuine but also very strategic. Since Khrushchev was rightfully putting so much blame on Stalin, he had to turn to somebody as the leader of the socialist party in order to have some credibility amongst the people. (Robert Jessell)

It is important to note that Khrushchev waited 3 years after the death of Stalin to make this speech. That is a testament to how radical it was, even after Stalin's death. During the 3 years Khrushchev gained power for himself and made sure the time was right for someone to speak the truth about Stalin. Matt Borin

Tito (Josip Broz) - Josip Broz, whose war name was Tito, helped make his nation, Yugoslavia, one of the resisters against Germany. Tito was in fact a communist and led a guerilla resistance movement against the Nazis, but he had no significant Soviet help to kick out the Nazis. Yugoslavia was later the only Eastern Nation not under USSR control during the Cold War. Although a dictator, Tito started accepting US aid because the States were willing to support dictators over communism. (Ellie Sheild)

Truman Doctrine - Truman gave his famous speech which defined this doctrine in March of 1947. He applied Kennan's containment policy by calling for Congress to supply aid to Greece and Turkey, which were dealing with internal unrest and rebellions after the disarray of WWII (Greek Civil War) which left them vulnerable to fall under communist influence. Truman called on the U.S. to actively intervene to defend the democracies of the world whenever they are threatened by communism. Greece and Turkey were usually under Great Britain's sphere of influence, however, following WWII, Great Britain could no longer exert its authority in the region. The results in Greece and Turkey were largely successful. -DavisHeniford

It’s also important to see how this doctrine creates a bipolar political climate. By vowing to go toe to toe for the allegiance of any country, Truman commits US resources to the zero sum game with the Soviet Union. This is important because the US spends their postwar period extending their influence into all parts of the world and using their vast wealth to strengthen ties with 2nd and 3rd world countries. Meanwhile, European countries like Britain and France attempt to rebuild and reorganize after the war, turning more inward and focusing on domestic problems rather than playing the new game of political chicken with the rest of the world. This creates an international political landscape in which the US and USSR assert themselves as truly dominant powers and extend their influence while European nations fade into irrelevance. –Richmond

Vichy France -Vichy France is located in the South Eastern half of France that considered itself independent from the rest of occupied France. Pétain was the leader of a collaborative government who appeased Hitler’s commands in order to maintain control of his state. He thought that the Germans had definitely won the war, assuming that Vichy would be much better off than the rest of occupied France. Although technically free, Vichy really was not because Hitler still called on the shots. For example the Nazi’s set quotas of the number of Jews Pétain had to mass murder. Though, Pétain actually exceeded this limit because he himself was anti-Semitic. (Ellie Sheild)

Wannsee Conference - In January of 1942, the Wannsee Conference was held (Wannsee was a suburb of Berlin) to determine a more comprehensive method for eliminating the Jewish race. It was here agreed that the Jews would be "evacuate[d]" to the east to extermination camps. This was essentially the formation of Hitler's Final Solution. -DavisHeniford

Warsaw Pact:The Warsaw Pact, created in 1955, was Stalin’s response to the creation of NATO in 1949. NATO is the defensive military alliance of the Western European nations, America, and Canada that attempted to counter USSR expansion in Europe. The Warsaw Pact consisted of the USSR and its minions, the Eastern European countries. (KatieMayo)
another interesting fact about the warsaw pact is that it took a while for the Soviet bloc countries to come up with this response to NATO. The warsaw pact was made official 6 whole years after NATO. The Warsaw Pact was taken extremely seriously by the USSR and anyone who tried to leave it, like Imry Nagy of Hungary, was met with quick and severe reaction from the USSR. (Beuler)