Scientific Revolution And Enlightenment 7th Period

Key Terms: Scientific Revolution and Enlightenment

Bacon, Francis (1561-1626) was a significant English scientist/philosopher. He was not much of a scientist, but wrote about science in a logical and clear way. His book, "Novus Organum" provides d a foundation for scientific advancement by introducing and popularizing the Scientific Method and inductive reasoning/ He helped popularize a new epistemology—to start with no preconceived assumptions, test a theory, find truth based on scientific observations and then write a discussion. —Connie

Novum Organum was written by Sir Francis Bacon and published in 1620. It outlines Bacon’s epistemology of inductive reasoning. In contrast to Descartes, Bacon believed that some truths must be taken from the senses and not purely the brain because of the brain’s tendency to be influenced by outside sources. Using what you observe, one can develop general theories. Bacon believed “science nourished faith”. However Bacon and Novum Organum are very much centered around science and experimentation and method. The Novum Organum was one of the first published works to include a new radical approach to truth fostered by the Scientific Revolution. -Becca

Baron de Montesquieu - A French philosopher who wrote Spirit of the Laws in 1748. He proposed that a separation of powers in regard to government was the best way to properly govern. All power should be divided between judicial, executive, and legislative divisions. ~Ashley

Spirit of the Laws -written by Baron de Montesquieu in 1748. The work compared the governments and societies of different nations and introduced the idea of relativism. When comparing different systems of government, Montesquieu tried to keep in mind the different traditions, climates, religions, and economies affecting the governments of various states. He argued that no single, ideal model of government existed; however, he praised his own country’s (Britain’s) system, suggesting that all societies learn from the British about freedom. His work also emphasized the separation of the executive, legislative, and judicial branches of government in order to protect the liberties of the people. He believed that without this balance, tyranny would ensue. The Spirit of the Laws was widely read in Europe and in America, where it influenced the U.S. Constitution. -Grace

Baroque - Baroque refers to the artistic, architectural, and musical style in 17th and 18th century Europe. Baroque art is characterized by drama and emotion, often portrayed through contrasts. The actual word baroque beans an irregularly shaped pearl whose beauty comes from its irregularity. – Erin :)

Beccaria, Cesare He wrote Essay on Crimes and Punishments in 1764 which advocated for more humane punishments for committed crimes. He argued that any administered punishment should be "mathematically calculated" to only be slightly worse than the crime. He was totally anti-death penalty, and he said that punishments should deter crime and nothing more. ~Ashley

Boyle, Robert- Primarly an Alchemist, but is regarded as one of the founders of chemistry. He's best known for "Boyle's Law" which defines the inverse relationship the absolute pressure and volume of gas when the temperature is kept constant. Kristen.

Brahe, Tyco was a Danish scientist who charted the motion of stars in the sky. His data showed that Copernicus's theories on circular orbits was incorrect, but he didn't understand the concept of elliptical orbits. He had the data and not the vision; his work, however, inspired the work of Galileo. —Connie

Copernicus, Nicholas - On his death in 1543, Copernicus, a Polish astronomer, published “On the Resolution of Heavenly Spheres.” His findings revealed that he favored the heliocentric theory, rather than the geocentric theory that was accepted at the time. While he did get this aspect of astronomy right, he believed in heavenly spheres and circular orbits. His revelation that earth was not the center of the universe was almost unbelievable because most people could not understand why God would not put humans in the center of the Earth – Erin

Deductive reasoning v. Inductive reasoning - Deductive reasoning was first explored in Novum Organum, Sir Francis Bacon’s book about the Scientific Method. Deductive reasoning goes from a general assumption to a specific, logical conclusion whereas inductive reasoning goes from a specific, factually based idea to a broader conclusion. Deductive reasoning was favored during the Scientific Revolution because inductive reasoning often entailed “stretching” an idea to fit a broader conclusion and wasn’t always logical. - Leora

Deism - Deism is the belief that God created the world and the natural laws that govern it, but he does not interfere with the world after he created it. Deists therefore do not believe in miracles. This belief was common among Enlightenment thinkers for it was a way to combine the belief in God and the belief in science without totally denying God’s existence. Deism is not a form of Christianity. – Erin

Rene Descartes was a French mathematician (especially renowned for his work with geometry) and major figure of the Scientific Revolution. In his book Discourse on Method, Descartes presents a new epistemology of deductive reasoning. This new way of finding truth, Descartes said, could not depend even on the information obtained through the senses. Instead all truth could only come from what is scientifically proven. This idea is called radical skepticism. Descartes’s most famous quote, I think therefore I am (Cogito ergo sum), encapsulates his veneration of pure reason. From this statement, Descartes proved the existence of God and other natural truths. -Becca

Discourse on Method - Descarte’s “Discourse on Method”, published in 1637, contained the philosophy that shifted the thinking to the new epistemology. It advocated deductive reasoning and basically said that our senses are too easily deceived. Descartes’s said that we should question everything, including our very existence, and that there is no such thing as an excess of skepticism. The “Discourse on Method” also contains Descarte’s most famous saying: “Cogito ergo sum”, which translates to “I think, therefore I am”. - Leora

Diderot, Denis Diderot (1713-1784) was an ambitious philosopher of the Enlightenment who created the Encyclopedia in order “to change the general way of thinking.” He began the laborous process in 1751 and worked to include all of the scientific, mathematical, philosophical, and even religious discoveries and theories. Diderot was both a writer and editor of the work and invited many experts from a wide array of fields to write certain portions of the Encyclopedia. In order to promote “a revolution in the minds of men to free them from prejudice,” Diderot hoped that the Encyclopedia would be a practical reference book and a useful resource for everyone. In 1759 the French government banned his Encyclopedia, but Diderot secretly continued to publish and distribute it. -Grace

Encyclopedia was one of Diderot's most significant accomplishments, and was the most important work of the era. It did not cover all subjects, but listed all of the most significant scientific, mathematical, technological, enlightenment-ish accomplishments and combined them in a way meant to be practical. Diderot's goal with the Encyclopedia was to change the general way of thinking.—Connie

Galileo Galilei- (1564-1642) Was an Italian mathematician whose discoveries included the theory of inertia, which changed the way that people perceived motion for the first time since Aristotle, and whose studies, like those of the heavens, viewed through a telescope of his design, confirmed Copernicus’ heliocentric theory. He published a book, Dialogue on the Two Great World Systems, in 1632 on his astronomical findings, but because of it, he was condemned by the Inquisition in 1633, and was forced to recant his ideas. Also, Galileo’s work is a perfect example of the principles of the scientific revolution: he believed that there was an underlying mathematical structure governing the universe, and he learned and theorized through his own observations. -Alexis

Harvey, William (1578-1675) was an English scientist who ultimately discovered the mechanics of the circulation of blood. —Connie

Hobbes, Thomas
Author of the Leviathan in 1651, Thomas Hobbes was an English philosopher who established much of what is western political philosophy today. It was his idea of the social contract theory between the government and the governed people. That the people should give up some of their freedom to the government so that the government must protect the rest of their individual rights. He also believed in representative government as the best political society for the governed. - Chuka

Leviathan - Published in 1651 by Thomas Hobbes, Leviathan popularized the idea of a social contract. It was written during the English civil war. Hobbes wrote that an absolutist state, which valued power and authority over human rights, is the only form of government that will be able to truly prosper. Without a strong central government, a war between the people will be inevitable. A fear of death or prison, placed upon the citizens by the government, is able to force the people into an obedient group. His ideas were not very popular at the time, especially with British citizens, but leviathan would influence many governments in the future, for good or for bad. - Hayes

Kepler, Johannes- (1571-1630) was a believer of Copernicus’ heliocentric theory, and sought to confirm it. Using the data collected by Tycho Brahe, he discovered three laws of planetary motion, and was able to prove that the orbits of planets are ellipses, rather than Copernicus’ “heavenly spheres” theory. His ideas served as the basis for Newton’s studies. -Alexis

Locke, John** -Locke was a product of his time, having lived through the Glorious Revolution in England, where he had seen the good side of humanity. He believed that men were a “Tabula Rasa” or a blank slate at birth, and they are influenced by the society they grow up in. Thus he believed in the viability of government, and believed that it was good for the welfare of everyone, provided the laws were based on reason. He published his Two Treatises on Civil Government in 1689 that commented on these very same beliefs. -Sam

2nd Treatise on Civil Government** - A book of political philosophy that outlines Locke's belief in the contract theory and natural rights, and how they should be applied to government. He argued that all people have certain unalienable rights that they are born with just by being human, and that people willingly enter into a contract with the government. They agree to accept the protection and authority of a government, but because they willingly enter into this contract, they are allowed to remove the government that they created if they believe it to be unfit. ~Ashley

The 2nd treatise on Civil Government, published by Locke in 1689 describes the State of Nature. He says that all individuals have unlimited freedom, but that freedom inevitably infringes on the freedom of others, so the state of nature is not the ideal state, thus the solution is the formation of a government through a social contract. Locke argues that the laws passed by a government can actually enlarge freedom instead of hindering it. He goes on to argue that an absolute monarchy is no better than the state of nature because reason is not the source of the decision making, and government should protect people’s life, liberty, and property. –Sam

Tabula rasa meaning blank slate is representative of John Locke’s belief on the human condition. In his Two Treatesis on Civil Govenrment and his general philosophy, Locke asserted that mankind was not born neither essentially eveil or essentially good. He said man is shaped by his environment such as government and family. Locke focuses on government and its role in shaping the outlook and lives of its people. -Becca

Linnaeus, Carolus
Was a Swedish botanist, physician, and zoologist. Carolus Linnaeus laid the foundations for the modern scheme of binomial nomenclature. He was known as the modern father of taxonomy and of ecology as well. He was also a professor of Botany at Uppsala University. Linnaeus questioned the origin of man, and helped future research of human natural history by describing humans as he would describe a plant or an animal, placing humans in a system of biological classification. - Chuka

Montaigne, Michel de
Was an influential writer during the French Renaissance. He is known for popularizing the essay as a literary genre and the father of modern skepticism. De Montaigne’s massive volume Essais published in 1580 to this day contains the most significant essays of that era which he lived in. He was inspired by his studies of the classics and his goal of the Essais was to describe humans in the most honest and blunt way. - Chuka

Newton, Isaac Sir Isaac Newton (1642-1727) was probably the most influential figure of the Scientific Revolution. His masterpiece, Principia inspired people in all fields (not just science) to find underlying rational truths using reason. Newton therefore began the transition from the Scientific Revolution to the Enlightenment and caused a larger portion of the population (most of the elite) to accept science. He solved the problem of motion by defining the concepts of mass, inertia, and force in relation to velocity and acceleration. Newton, along with Leibniz, with whom he often argued, helped develop calculus and participated in many discussions at the Royal Society of London. He was also the first Englishman knighted for his scientific contributions. -Grace

Principia - Issac Newton's 1687 book that explained the natural laws of physics, among many other scientific discoveries. It is widely considered one of the most important publications in history. With Principia, Newton was able to spread the scientific revolution among not just the science community, but among common people who would be able to use his general method of thinking in their own trades. - Hayes

Blaise Pascal was a French mathematician and scientist who wrote Pensées. Apart from what is known today as Pascal’s Triangle, Pascal is also known for his journal entries wrestling with science and religion. In Pensées Pascal ponders where the majority of our time should be spend, in a lab or in a church? He uses mathematical principles to prove aspects of religion. One interesting aspect of Pascal’s work is that though absolutely committed to the budding Scientific Revolution, Pascal acknowledges the limits of reason as possible proof of God’s existence. -Becca

Rousseau, Jean Jacque - Jean Jacques Rousseau was the antithesis of Voltaire. He was a man of the masses who advocated individual freedoms and a limited government. He wrote The Social Contract in 1762, which contained ideas about consent of the governed. He wanted general will and a consensus to determine government policy, not just a majority. He helped inspire the French Revolution. - Leora

Social Contract This was written by Jean Jacques Rousseau who believed defining the power of government would maximize human potential. When he wrote "man is born free, but everywhere he is in chains" he was trying to say that all men are born with freedoms, but society puts constraints on these freedoms. He said that the general will must determine whether or not a law is valid. Not only a majority, but the general consensus of people must agree on a principle for it to become law. All kinds of people must be represented in this consensus. He argues that if the general consensus agrees on it, it must be good for the community, and if it's good for the community, then it must be good for the individual. ~Ashley

Emile This work was also written by Jean Jacques Rousseau, and it is the story of the education of a young boy. Rousseau argues that you cannot educate someone only in terms of reason. People cannot learn everything by reading books. Virtue and understanding come from character and experience, so in order for someone to learn properly, they need to undergo things that make them experience success, failure, happiness, sadness, and passion. ~Ashley

general will, noble savage
Royal Society of London - The Royal Society of London was an attempt to organize scientists with a system of correspondence, meeting together, and experimentation. It was at Oxford in the 1640s when the Invisible College was formed during the English Civil War. In 1662 the Royal Society got a charter from Charles II, which shows that the government was supporting science. The Royal Society wanted to gain all practical information about nature, which is impossible, but then transitioned into being a center for research. They also began publishing the first scientific journal. - Leora

Salons - The salons were gatherings of the french elite who came together to discuss a wide range of progressive topics. They were exclusive to the rich, but fostered the enlightenment way of thinking. Many famous philosophes attended these, most publically Voltaire. They gave women more power than before. Women were the ones to organize the gatherings, and also were able to speak their opinions among the men. - Hayes

Philosophers held mixed emotions about the salons. Some, like Voltaire, were able to use their wit and intellect to express their ideas and spread them throughout the system. However, many of the aspects of the salon gatherings were trivial, which was a turn off to many bright minds, such as Rousseau. The Salon gatherings were a strange mixture of intellect and acute social awareness, which created an odd atmosphere adored by some and resented by others. -Sam

Smith, Adam- (1723-1790) A Scottish enlightenment economic thinker who attacked the former strategies of mercantilism and strict government regulation in European economies. Instead, he advocated that agriculture and trade should be free from restrictions, and insisted on a more laissez-faire approach. He is the author of The Wealth of Nations and is thought of as the father of modern economics. -Alexis

Wealth of Nations- Written by Scottish economist Adam Smith in 1776, it is commonly though of as the magnum opus of economic theory. In this book, Smith discusses subjects such as free markets and productivity. It was a response to Colbert’s mercantilist policies, in which he advocated instead for lessened restrictions on trade and agriculture. -Alexis

Invisible hand- the invisible hand of the market was a metaphor first conceived by Adam Smith in his work "the wealth of nations" and is used it to describe the self-regulating behavior of the economy. this concept helps justify laissez-faire economics as it suggests that markets will naturally and automatically be inclined to socailly desirable ends. kristen.

State of nature- A term used to describe the condition of society before the establishment of government. The exact meaning of it varies, sometmes it describes a state in which there were no rights, only freedoms, and rights were created when government was formed and sometimes it describes a state of natural rights which government takes away. Kristen.

Vesalius, Andreas - Vesalius attacked the ideas of Galen, who believed in the four bodily humors, by dissecting human bodies. He published his findings in his book “On the Fabric of the Human Body” in 1543 and was used as reference for other people. His findings were not popular amongst most people, but it was widely read among the small, scientific community. Vesalius occasionally did public dissections. – Erin :)

Voltaire a French philosopher of the Enlightenment who praised the English model of government, criticized the Christian religion, and encouraged ‘realistic optimism.’ As a Frenchman, Voltaire praised the government system in England because of the economic and religious liberties and the freedom of expression. He believed that when free, man could truly progress. He also respected “Chinese Religion” and condemned the blind and thoughtless faith and superstitious beliefs of Christians. He famously said “Ecrasez l’infame!” or “Crush the infamous thing” at the end of his essays. In his famous essay, Candide, he offered that all you can do is “cultivate your garden.” In other words, you can’t perfect the world but you can focus on improving your own life. Voltaire often participated in the French salons and, unlike Rousseau, embraced the ‘social game’ aspect of them, often knocking down his opponents with his sharp wit. -Grace

Candide - A satire by Voltaire published in 1759. Candide is funny, fast paced, and popular across the world for it's themes. It tells the story of a young man who lives a life of luck and prosperity, yet loses it all in a matter of years. Some philosophers at the time believed that man could achieve perfection in his world, but Voltaire shows that with even a "perfect" life, you will fail sometime along the way. At the end, Candide learns that he can only focus on improving himself, and to not worry about achieving a paradisiacal lifestyle. - Hayes

Wollstonecraft, Mary,-Wollstonecraft was a British women's rights advocate and author of "Vindication of the Rights of Women" in which she claimed that women were actually inferior to men, they only appeared so due to lack of eduation. She supported a society in which men and women were treated as rational beings and the social order was founded on reason. Mother of Mary Shelley. kristen.

Vindication of the Rights of Women -This was one of the earliest forms of feminist philosophy, written by Mary Wollstonecraft in 1792. It repudiates the arguments that others were making against female education. Wollstonecraft argues that women play a vital role in society because they are the educators of the future generation. Also, she says that women can be companions for their husbands as apposed to simply their wives. -Sam

Others to know:
John Locke- English… Two Treatises on Civil Government, 1689

David Hume- Scottish … Enquiry Concerning Understanding, 1739

Baron de Montesquieu- French… Spirit of the Laws, 1748
• Separation of powers:  Executive, Legislative, Judicial:  only really works in a small republic, not France or America

Adam Smith- Scottish… Wealth of Nations, 1776
• Economic liberalism, capitalism, free markets, laissez-faire, invisible hand

Mary Wollstonecraft- English… Vindication of the Rights of Women, 1792
Immanuel Kant- German… Critique of Pure Reason, 1781
• Highly influential in theory of knowledge
• Articulated a morality without reference to God
• Reason can understand everything but ourselves and God

Cesare Beccaria- Italian… Essay on Crime and Punishment, 1764
• humane punishments, anti-torture, anti-secrecy in deliberations, rights of the accused
• Punishments should deter crime and no more… anything more than that is excessive and tyrannical 
- Anti-death penalty
- “Mathematical calculation”: (his language) the punishment should outweigh the perceived benefit of the crime and nothing more