Scientific Revolution And Enlightenment 2nd Period
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Key Terms: Scientific Revolution and Enlightenment

Bacon, Francis - Sir Francis Bacon, in his Novum Organum, describes a epistemology centered around the idea of inductive reasoning. Rather than beginning with a preconceived idea and branching out ideas from that original one, inductive reasoning meant having no preconceived ideas and investigating by experimentation. Then theorize based on data. He was not anti-religious, as he believed in reconciling faith and science ~ "science nourishes faith." Sarah Shea

Sir Francis Bacon also served in the court of King James I, showing the respect and recognition that scientists were beginning to receive in contrast with the superstition of earlier eras. It is notable that he died while performing one of his many "less successful" experiments. Jordan

Novum Organum- While Sir Francis Bacon was not the best scientist, he did write "Novum Organum" meaning New Order. In this book he defines the Scientific Method which is still used today to conduct all science experiments. One must make a hypothesis, conduct multiple tests to prove it, and once that is done they must publish their ideas. This laid the foundation for his new epistemology, inductive reasoning. Sarah Tomlin

Baron de Montesquieu-A French social commentator who lived during the latin 17th and early 18th century, who is famous for the idea of separations of powers in government much like the US government today. He is also known for helping popularize the terms Feudalism and the Byzantine Empire. (MDog)

Spirit of Laws- In these treatise three different types of political systems are outlines: republics, monarchies and despots. They are divided due to degrees in which they give citizens rights and based on who the leader is, how they got power and how much power they have. The Baron de Montesquieu helped write it and its publishing was threaten because of this due to the fact that much of Montesquieu’s writings were censored. (MDog)

Baroque- Baroque, meaning irregular shaped pearl, was a style of art during the 17th Century that represented a sense of beauty in something that was unique. Often there was a large emphasis on the drama, emotion, and passion of the work of art. The Baroque style was conveyed in art as well as music. Sarah Tomlin
—An example of Baroque art is the “Rape of Proserpina”. In this sculpture, there is a significant amount of drama and action as Persephony is being dragged to the underworld. An example of Baroque music is Pachebel’s “Canon in D” in which there is a mixture of quiet and loud notes with structured patterns. (Kavitha)

Beccaris, Cesare- An Italian jurist and philosopher who wrote On Crimes and Punishment in which he argued against capital punishment due on the grounds that the government did not have the right to take lives and that it wasn’t a useful form of punishment. Many reforms around European in the penal system where in response the works and writings of Beccaris. (MDog)

On Crimes and Punishment- Published in 1764 and written by Cesare Beccaris, this book highlights the peak of the Milan Enlightenment and goes over one of the first modern arguments against the death penalty. (Mdog)

Boyle, Robert- An Anglo-Irish man who was the first modern chemist, although he had his roots in alchemy. As one of the pioneers of the scientific method, he is best known for his discovery of Boyle's Law, which relates pressure and volume in a closed system. Influenced Isaac Newton. (Shreds)
Brahe, Tyco -Danish philosopher who greatly contributed to Galileo's theories. He collected massive amounts of data that enabled Galileo to conclude his ideas. He also disagreed with all of Copernicus's ideas. He denounced Copernicus's ideas of circular orbits and heavenly spheres. This disagreement shows that science was not always a forward progression but that it had to move back sometimes before it could advance once again. (Mary)

Copernicus, Nicholas - Copernicus was Polish and wrote On the Revolution of the Heavenly Spheres, in it he shattered the idea of the geocentric theory. He is the first person accredited with recognizing that the earth is not the center of the universe, inventing the heliocentric theory that the sun is the center of the solar system. This was seen as attacking man's view of himself because the idea of the earth being at the center was based on the fact that God created the universe and man is most important to Him. Copernicus was not completely correct though, as noted by Galileo who, although he was influenced by Copernicus, rejected his model. Copernicus was wrong in maintaining the idea of circular orbits and the idea that these sphere were rotated by angels. (Laura)

Deductive reasoning v. Inductive reasoning- Sir Francis Bacon laid the foundation for a new epistemology(study of how we know what we know) called inductive reasoning. It rejected the previous absolute truths of the Bible and Church and tried to prove theories by using no preconceived ideas. In order to know any truths, one must prove them in an experiment and then generalize a principle. Rejected by Bacon, Deductive reasoning was an epistemology that was used greatly by Rene Descantes. It states that in order to prove something, one must begin with their principle and prove it from that point. He would question everything in order to prove his one principle. Sarah Tomlin

Deism - Diests believed that God created the earth and instituted the natural laws but then stepped back and no longer interfered. In this sense, God is compared to a clockmaker. This religion allowed scientists to avoid being atheist despite the fact that they were anti-miricle. Although Deism was a scientific spin off of Christianity, it was not in fact a version of Christianity. (Laura)

Descartes, Rene- The mathematician Descartes is widely known for his discovery of the Cartesian plane and his publishment of his book Discourse on Method. During the time of the scientific revolution he introduced a new epistemology in which he believed in questioning everything and the only thing he was sure of what his existence due to his active thoughts. This idea could be expressed through “Cognito ergo sum” or “I think therefore I am”. Furthermore, Descartes believed in starting with rational principles as oppose to observations through the senses. (Kavitha)

Discourse on Method- Written in 1637 by Rene Descartes, Discourse on the Method of Rightly Conducting the Reason and Seeking Truth in the Sciences, not only emphasized that the principles of doubt did not contradict religious believes but also the power of the human mind. It reflected Descartes’ new epistemology establishing how we know what we know which proceeded to “I think therefore I am”. His system of extreme skepticism led him to doubt everything including his own senses, however he used this to logically prove God’s existence. (Hannah)

Diderot, Denis (1713-1784) French, One of the big three philosophers of the Enlightenment. Diderot published his book "Encyclopedia" in 1751. This was a masterpiece of the time because he was able to synthesize all of the intellectual advancements taking place at this time. Somewhat of an enlightenment reference book. He was crucial to the spreading of enlightened ideas as well as the accessibility of these ideas. (Mary)

Encyclopedia- Diderot wrote this in 1751 as a way to bring many aspects of enlightenment into one book. He expanded enlightenment beyond science and worked to change the general way of thinking. (Kavitha)

Galileo Galilei - Galileo was influenced by Copernicus's heliocentric theory, though he rejected his model, by Tycho Brahe's astronomical data, and by Johannes Kepler's 3 laws of planetary motion and his idea of elliptical orbits. He put these three men's findings together to discover the correct interpretation of planetary motion and published his Heliocentric Theory in 1610. Galileo taught at the University of Padua and he also explained inertia and after hearing about a telescope, invented one himself. In 1633 he was condemned by the Inquisition for his ideas, but because of his connections with the Pope and the Medici, he was only charged with teaching wrong ideas instead of heresy. This means he had the option to recant his ideas and avoid death. He does this and is put on house arrest, but he continues to publish secretly in the Netherlands. (Laura)

Harvey, William (1578-1657) English physician who described completely the circulation of blood through the heart and body. (Shreds)

Hobbes, Thomas - Hobbes discussed and published his ideas about government. His belief was that human nature is inherently evil, and that humans must be compelled to be good. In order for this to happen, people need extremely strong governments in order to keep its people in line. According to Hobbes, it does not matter how far a government went in order to keep its people in line, as long as the government was doing its job. He also published Leviathan in 1651. Sarah Shea

Leviathan
Written in 1651 by Thomas Hobbes during the time of social chaos (interregnum) in England. Leviathan itself means a strong centralized government that which Hobbes believed was crucial to the success of society. In this book, Hobbes describes society without this strong government as anarchy where "the life of man, solitary, poor, hasty, brutish, short." He believed that humans were naturally evil and thus needed a powerful authority like an absolute government to control them and keep society running. (Mary)

Kepler, Johannes - Johannes Kepler was a German astrologer who believed that Copernicus’s theories were correct. Determined to confirm the heliocentric theory, he discovered the three laws of planetary motion and proved that the orbits of the planets are elliptical, not circular. These laws were so revolutionary that few people accepted them until Isaac Newton used them decades later. (Mackenzie)

Locke, John - John Locke expressed ideas concerning the same topics as Hobbes. However, he decided that people were born with a blank slate, or "tabula rasa," and that their environment would dictate who that person becomes, good or bad. Locke believed that people need a strong, central government, but the government should not have as much absolute and unchecked power as Hobbes believed. Sarah Shea

It’s also important to know about Locke, that he believed that underlying order exists and that every single person on Earth will eventually reach this conclusion. By applying some of the notions from The Second Treatise of Civil Government to government, he was able to prove the inalienability of life, liberty, and property. These were things that were guaranteed to every man at birth, and that no one could take away from him. Specifically, the right to property shows his voice of the gentry during the time period. (Ricky)

2nd Treatise on Civil Government - Written by John Locke in 1690, the Second Treatise was deeply influenced by Hobbes. Locke wrote that a state of nature is a state of war and only a contract among the people can end chaos and anarchy. Unlike Hobbes, however, Locke asserted that the sovereign authority should have no power over the three natural rights of its subjects: life, liberty, and property. Overall, his primary concern was to defend the individual against the state. (Mackenzie)

Tabula rasa - This term, meaning “blank slate” was created by Locke. His belief was that at birth humans are neither good nor bad and they have the capability to become what they want to become. He believed that human nature was capable of being good and moral. (Kavitha)

It’s also important to note how the ideas of Locke and Hobbes contrast, especially in their assessments of human nature. Hobbes in his work, Leviathan, theorized that human nature is essentially bad, and Locke’s tabula rosa claims that humans have no inherent goodness or badness but rather acquire such influences through experiences. His humanistic take on human nature also highlights the spirit of the Enlightenment, taking Renaissance inspired humanism and applying it to the real world. –Richmond

Linnaeus, Carolus - (1707-1778) He was a Swedish botanist, physician, and zoologist who essentially came up with the system of binomial nomenclature (genus + species) that we use to name living things today. Linnaeus is also known as the father of modern taxonomy as well as one of the fathers of modern ecology. He went on numerous nature excursions to find, study, and classify plants, animals, and minerals as well. Rousseau once sent him a message that said: “I know no greater man on earth”. (Chuma)

Montaigne, Michel de (1533-1592) – One of the most influential writers of the French Renaissance, he is best known for popularizing the essay as a literary genre. He is also commonly thought of as the father of modern skepticism. His essays had a direct influence on all sorts of Enlightenment writers such as Descartes, Paschal, Rousseau, Emerson, and even Shakespeare. Montaigne was admired by his contemporaries more as a statesman than as an author, however, because he had a tendency to digress into anecdotes and personal speculations in his essays. (Chuma)

Newton, Isaac - Newton (1642-1727) wrote Principia, one of the most important turning points of the age because of its explanation of the scientific principles governing the world with no reference to God or the Classics. His intellectual contributions to science include: universal gravitation, the inverse square law, 3 laws of motion (Inertia, F=MA, Equal and Opposite Reaction), calculus, and optics. He also was part of the beginning of the Royal Society (founded 1660), which was a place for brilliant minds to gather and discuss new intellectual ideas. Sarah Shea

Newton was highly respected by Richard II and his court who knighted Newton and then chartered the Royal Society. In another gesture of respect for science and Newton's contributions, Newton was given a state funeral and buried in Westminster Cathedral. His monument is not in the traditional style found within cathedrals, but rather portrays him leaning on his books surrounded with some of his most prominent exploits. This shows the new status that scientists were beginning to achieve in society. Jordan

Principia- Written by Sir Isaac Newton and published in 1687, "Principia" became an huge step forward in the Scientific community. Newton had complied an explanation of all scientific principles governing the world. He was able to explain multiple theories without the use of God. This was huge because never before had someone proven these theories with out some or all reasoning in God. While we now know it was incomplete, at the time, the scientific community saw it as a complete explanation. Sarah Tomlin

Pascal, Blaise- (1623-1662) This brilliant French mathematician and experimenter was the last important person against the progress of science, especially Descartes. Despite his advances in probability and his work on conic sections, he thought too much emphasis was being placed on logic over the feelings of the heart. Wrote Pensees and he had a mystical experience in 1654. (Shreds)

It’s also important to know about Pascal, that he helped to discover barometric pressure and a calculating machine. His Pensées also helps us to understand how truly far the scientific community had come by this time, because of the simple fact that Pascal was afraid of the sheer speed at which science was progressing. He decided to devote the rest of his life to spiritual endeavors. (Ricky)

Rousseau, Jean Jacque- Rousseau (1712-1778) had a major effect on the French Revolution with his ideas about virtue, education, and freedom. He believed in the creation of what he called the General Will, which would not only be a majority rule but all men and women from class would create and must agree on the laws, reflected in his book The Social Contract (1762). Although his visions for government were idealized and impractical, he inspired the French to ask where government gets its power and what a valid law actually is. (Hannah)

Rosseau focused very heavily on the limitations of humans, and in //Emile // he preached education for both men and women, especially that of virtue, an early example of liberal arts education. He also wanted the education to be based on experience, and not just books, with the belief that with with experience comes virtue, and virtue forms character. Jordan

Social Contract, Emile, general will, noble savage- Written by Jean Jaques Rousseau in 1762, both Emile and The Social Contract entail Rousseau’s inflammatory political and social philosophy. In the Social Contract, Rousseau rebukes the commonly accepted idea that some were designed to lead over others by describing scientifically the beginning of time and how human beings interacted with each other. He then proceeds to speak about his radical doctrine of maximizing individual freedom in the form of creating an institution bound by the general will, or the will of the general public. In other words, he theorizes that governments have no authority unless they obey the commands of the general public’s wishes, whether that pertains to issues of morality or economics or European politics. However, he did not believe this doctrine to be practical or able to be implemented, but rather as a standard to which one could compare his or her own nation. Emile, written in the same year, focused on his educational philosophy, specifically that education comes not from books but from experiences. He recognizes the limitations to human resources and human thoughts but offers a much more romantic vision of the educational process rather than the scientific and methodical writing of his time. Rousseau would be a crowning figure for the French Revolution, which would take his ideas and romanticize them further to speak to broad sweeping social concepts inconsistent with the ancień regime. –Richmond

Royal Society of London - Many scientists during the Enlightenment wanted to establish scientific communities where new ideas and discoveries could be exchanged. In 1660, the Royal Society of London for Improving Natural Knowledge was established. It was granted a charter in 1662 by Charles II. The society aimed to gather all knowledge about nature, and it soon became a research center. By the example of the London society, other similar academies were established in Paris, Berlin, and Naples by 1700. (Mackenzie)

Salons - The enlightenment in France was centered around salons. They were social meetings where nobles and enlightenment figures discussed their essays about science and its regard to human nature and politics. Wit and the frivolity of the nobles played a big role in these gatherings; how you presented yourself and whether you could hold your own often determined whether you were respected or whether you were not invited back. An important aspect of these salons is that they were organized by women, meaning they chose the guest list and had the opportunity to participate. (Laura)

Smith, Adam- Known as the father of modern economics, Smith, a Scottish philosopher, wrote the Wealth of Nations in 1776. He focused on economic concepts like the origins and purpose of regulatory institutions, arguing that free trade, one in which the government played a much more laid back role, was the healthier form of economic guidance. Additionally, he focuses on the underlying forces that drive economies with concepts like the invisible hand and theory that human beings seek to fulfill their own utility (seek what makes them happy), and in this way economic flow can be predicted to a certain extent. In an age of overbearing states and the popularity of Mercantilism, Smith’s ideas were radical. They influenced the development of Lassiez Faire economics, in which the gov played a small role like the late 19th century British and American industries. –Richmond

Wealth of Nations- Written in 1776 by Adam Smith, Wealth of Nations, argued that money itself was only a marker of wealth and did not constitute wealth. He believed in laissez-faire government in which individuals could be allowed to pursue their own self-interest without restriction from guilds or government. (Hannah)

It’s also important to know that within Wealth of Nations, Smith argues that wealth is not money and that money is merely a marker, but also that wealth is derivative of the added value in manufactured goods produced by investment and labor. He also believed that at all levels of economic activity, tiers of labor should exist. (Ricky)

Invisible hand- The invisible hand is an economic concept described in Adam Smith’s the Wealth of Nations. In essence, it lays out the laws of supply and demand, the fundamentals of modern economics, by theorizing that there is an invisible hand that guides the ups and downs of economies. When the price of an item is too high, people stop buying it, decreasing the demand so that the seller of that object has to lower his price in order to reinvigorate demand. Likewise, when there is a small supply of an object in contrast to a large demand, the seller of the object raises the price because he doesn’t have enough to sell at a normal rate and make a profit, but when there is a large supply and a small demand the price is low because the seller can sell more at a lower price and make the same profit. These natural fluctuations are the laws of supply and demand that Smith describes in his idea of an invisible hand. –Richmond

State of nature- This was an idea put forth by Thomas Hobbes in the Leviathan to describe what preceded society. The state of nature was characterized by a state of war in which life is "solitary, poor, nasty, brutish, and short". Hobbes thought that the only way to fix this was the absolute submission of authority to an absolute sovereign to end the anarchy. (Shreds)

Vesalius, Andreas- (1514-1564) Dutch. He contributed to the scientific revolution with his intricate investigations of the human body through dissection. His work was published in his book "On the Fabric of the Human Body" published in 1543, the same year as Copernicus's "On the Revolution of the Heavenly Spheres". Although artists like Michealangelo had previously dissected human bodies, Vesalius's purpose was fundamentally different from the personal interest of human sculpting. Vesalius was trying to give a better understanding of the human body and spread a more standard idea around the world by publishing his work. This was also a major advancement from the previous idea that Galen proposed about the content of the human body. In ancient greece, Galen said that the body was made of the four bodily humors: blood, phlegm, yellow and black bile. (Mary)

Voltaire- Voltaire (1694-1778), one of the big three French philosophers during the enlightenment, was very anti-Christian. “Ecrasez linfame!” meaning “Crush the Infamous Thing!” was written at the bottom of every essay he wrote because of his hatred for superstition in the Christian religion. However he did see beauty in other religions such as that of the Chinese. He also wrote Candide. (Hannah)

It’s also very important to note about Voltaire, that he was not known solely as one of the chief antagonists to Christianity during the time period. He was also well-known for his work, Elements of the Philosophy of Newton (1738), which he made with Madame du Chatelet. This work was not just a mere study of Newton’s findings as a physicist, but also a “thumbs-up,” if you will, to the study of physics in general, because it helps to liberate the human mind. Additionally, he wrote Philosophical Letters on the English (1734), which was celebrated English tolerance and attacked religion, as well as French society. (Ricky)

Candide - This is a piece of French satire published by Voltaire in 1759. The protagonist, Candide, is living a sheltered life and has been told by his mentor, Pangloss, that he lives in a perfect world. Unfortunately, when Candide sets out to marry, his life abruptly begins a downward spiral as he suffers a disillusioning sequence of hardships including being tried by the Inquisition and the (supposed) death of his wife. The piece is characterized by its sarcastic tone and erratic, fast-moving plot. Voltaire’s lesson is not to reject optimism outright, but to “cultivate your garden”, viewing the world through a practical lens and making the most of what you have. (Chuma)

Wollstonecraft, Mary - Wollstonecraft was an English radical and early women’s rights activist. Dismayed that the French Constitution of 1791 failed to confer political equality on women, Wollstonecraft crafted A Vindication of the Rights of Women (1792), an essay intended for Charles Talleyrand, a French diplomat. In her essay, she urged women to cast off their “fascinating graces” and “docility of manners” in favor of obtaining virtue through development of character and the use of their own rational minds, apart from the influence of men. (Chuma)

Vindication of the Rights of Women - Written by Mary Wollstonecraft in 1792, this publication was inspired by the French Revolution’s doctrine of natural rights. Mary scorned the way that society kept women “frivolous, artificial, weak, and in a perpetual state of childhood.” She claimed that men refused to treat them as intelligent human beings who could contribute to society. She advocated for reform that would allow women the same educational opportunities as men. (Mackenzie)

Others to know:
John Locke- English… Two Treatises on Civil Government, 1689


David Hume- Scottish … Enquiry Concerning Understanding, 1739


Baron de Montesquieu- French… Spirit of the Laws, 1748
• Separation of powers:  Executive, Legislative, Judicial:  only really works in a small republic, not France or America

Adam Smith- Scottish… Wealth of Nations, 1776
• Economic liberalism, capitalism, free markets, laissez-faire, invisible hand

Mary Wollstonecraft- English… Vindication of the Rights of Women, 1792
Immanuel Kant- German… Critique of Pure Reason, 1781
• Highly influential in theory of knowledge
• Articulated a morality without reference to God
• Reason can understand everything but ourselves and God

Cesare Beccaria- Italian… Essay on Crime and Punishment, 1764
• humane punishments, anti-torture, anti-secrecy in deliberations, rights of the accused
• Punishments should deter crime and no more… anything more than that is excessive and tyrannical 
- Anti-death penalty
- “Mathematical calculation”: (his language) the punishment should outweigh the perceived benefit of the crime and nothing more**