Scientific Revolution And Enlightenment 1st Period
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Key Terms: Scientific Revolution and Enlightenment

Bacon, Francis- Sir Francis Bacon lived from 1561-1626 and was crucial part of the scientific enlightenment because of his work to establish a new form of reasoning called inductive reasoning. He also devised a scientific method called Novum Organum, and even though he was a natural philosopher (or scientist) he still stressed that science could nourish faith, making him important in the move towards acceptance of science. (Caroline Beuley)

Bacon's idea of inductive reasoning involved using observation and experimentation to make conclusions and theories. This vastly changed the epistemology of the time and distinguished between opinion and justified belief. (CarterWiles)

Novum Organum- Novum Organum was the name for the scientific method invented by Bacon. This method included a hypothesis, followed by experimentation, then observations, then generalization, and lastly, and most importantly, repetition! Bacon encouraged other scientists to test others experiments in order maximize repetition and thus ensure accuracy. This method was an example of inductive reasoning, very different from Descartes deductive reasoning. (Caroline Beuley)

*Side Note* Novum Organum is Latin for "new things" —-TB

Baron de Montesquieu and Spirit of the Laws: Baron de Montesquieu (1689-1755) was a French social and political thinker whose Spirit of the Laws developed out of discussions at Madame Tencin’s salon. In his work, Monte defines three different political systems (republican, monarchial, and despotic), differentiating each by the extent to which citizens have rights. He also discusses the meaning of political liberty, suggesting due process, fair trial, presumption of innocence and proportionality in the severity of punishment as a means to its preservation. Monte’s ideas were greatly influenced by the English Glorious Revolution, and in turn, his work influenced many American founders. —-TB

Within "On the Separation of Governmental Power", Montesquieu explains that the only way to have true liberty and freedom is through having power be divided between different branches of government (executive branch, legislative branch, judiciary branch). In brining about this separation, liberty is ensured because the same agent who creates the lays is not enforcing them or interpreting them. Instead, the branches check each others power to ensure fairness (hopefully). (David Farrow)

Baroque - Baroque was a style of 17th and 18th century art and song. This style features beauty from something a little peculiar, contrasts (especially in texture, folds, and shadows), and a lot of emotion in one instant. (Louis Stephens)

For an example of Baroque music, look at Four Seasons by Vivaldi. The song varies greatly from high note to low note and very fast to very slow in order to emphasize contrasting elements within the song. The contrast itself gives greater value to the individual notes through showing the possible range of music.(David Farrow)

Also: The Baroque style is also characterized by exaggerated motion, complex forms, bold ornamentation and clear details in order to produce emotional drama. This style refers not only to art and music, but can also refer to architecture, literature and dance. The Baroque style originally started in Rome, Italy before spreading to most of Europe, party due to its encouragement by the Catholic Church after the Council of Trent. (Connor Haines)

*Beccaria, Cesare* was an Italian philosopher and intellectual most notably known for his Essay on Crimes and Punishments (1764) in which he explained reforms needed in the justice system such as no torture to induce confession and no death penalty. He was raised in Italy but soon found in interest in philosophies like Diderot, Montesquieu, and Hobbes from whom he derived his ideas of social contract and utility which he used to prove his criminal reform theories. Beccaria's Essay on Crimes and Punishments discusses an anti-torture approach to confessions and also established punishment within a social contract as being a way to create a better society, a deterrence from crime, and above all to be truly fitted to the crime or appeared benefit of a crime. He also advocates against the death penalty as being tyrannical. His ideas were immensely popular; however, his presence in Paris was awkward so he retired very shortly to Milan. (rory)

Essay on Crimes and Punishments (1764) was written by Milanese philosopher Cesare Beccaria about the reform needed in the criminal justice system as well as a calculation on punishment fitting crime. He discusses torture as violation of rights and uses the idea of a social contract to establish punishment as a creation of a better society and to align it with crime and not be excessive. For this reason, Beccaria also criticizes the death penalty and advocated for it's removal from the criminal system, as was only followed by Joseph II of Austria leading to a conservative backlash. (rory)

Boyle, Robert- Robert Boyle was a chemist of the scientific revolution. He was apart of an organization formed in 1660 called the Royal Society of London for Improving Natural Knowledge. King Charles II of England chartered this organization in 1662. (Lauren Burton)

Brahe, Tyco - Tycho Brahe was Danish and lacked a nose. He was a mathematical genius who observed stars and planets extensively. He did not believe Copernicus's heliocentric theory, but he knew that simple round orbits didn't quite work for a geocentric theory, so he tried to figure out what was going on (his student Johannes Kepler would discover elliptical orbits and the three laws of planetary motion). Galileo used Brahe's wealth of data, along with Kepler's discoveries, for his breakthrough. (Jane Wester)

Copernicus, Nicholas(1473-1543): Copernicus was a Polish philosopher and author of On the Revolution of the Heavenly Spheres. He observed that the planets do not move at the same speed; an observation that differed greatly from Ptolemy’s. He formulated the heliocentric theory that planets have circular orbits (this is flawed) and that they revolve around the sun. His theory was extremely controversial because it challenged the accepted scientific and religious understanding of the world. —-TB

Deductive reasoning v. Inductive reasoning - Rene Descartes advocated deductive reasoning, which means starting with broad, abstract concepts - for example, trusting nothing, not even his own senses - and moving from there to make conclusions about the world. Frances Bacon, on the other hand, advocated inductive reasoning, which means proceeding from observations and experiments to generalizations and conclusions. The two are essentially opposites. (Jane Wester)

Deism: During the Enlightenment, an anti-Christianity sentiment swept throughout the minds of the philosophers, especially evident in Voltaire (remember: l’infame). Many of the natural scientists looked instead towards deism, a belief that described God as a sort of clockmaker with earth as the clock: God created earth and then let it be dictated by natural laws. Deism is completely void of godly interference. In this way, deism provides humans with the opportunity to run their own lives, free from divine action and the social pressures that came along with Christianity. KatieMayo

Descartes, Rene: Descartes (1596-1650) was a French mathematician, inventing the geometric Cartesian plane. His radical skepticism caused him to question everything. For example, in The Discourse on Method (1637) he introduced this new idea of epistemology, the way of knowing what you know through deductive reasoning: start with a principal and see what can be made fundamental based on the world around you—not the classics or the Bible. An example of this type of reasoning/skepticism is “Cogito ergo sum,” meaning I think therefore I am. (Meaghan Shimota)

Descartes radical skepticism derives from the scientific method. For Descartes, existence itself cannot be a given, and, as such, he must discover some way to prove that the universe actually exists. This proof of existence comes from "Cogito ergo sum", in that through realizing that he can consider the nature of his existence, he must exist. Through considering if he exists in the first place, Descartes lays the framework for further inquiry into metaphysics. (David Farrow)

Discourse on Method-The book, Discourse on Method, written by Rene Descartes, established a whole new epistemology of deductive reasoning. It was the cornerstone of Descarte’s theories and was basically a train of knowledge based on the fact that one knew nothing other than the first conclusion of “Cogito Ergo Sum,” meaning “I think, therefore I am.” (Caroline Beuley)

Diderot, Denis: Diderot (1713-1784) began the Encyclopedia in 1751. By compiling both his own writings and the works and facts of experts, Diderot sought to “change the general way of thinking” by attempting to put into one place the religious and political criticisms and scientific ideas of the time. In increasing accessibility to new ideas, he encouraged both social and scientific progress. (Meaghan Shimota)

Encyclopedia - Denis Diderot wrote the encyclopedia in 1751, and it served as an attempt to put into 1 volume the latest technology, social thinkings (anti-religion was part of this), and scientific discoveries. The goal was the change the general way of thinking… (Louis Stephens)

The Encyclopedia represents a truly Enlightenment ideology as it is an attempt to centralize all knowledge. Diderot believes that having access to all knowledge that has been discovered proves essential to the progress of human society. THus, the Encyclopedia offers that reference so that people can learn and expand their knowledge. The only drawback to the Encyclopedia was that, because of its large size, access was often restricted to the wealthy. (David Farrow)

Also: The Encyclopedia (full title Encyclopedia: or a Systematic Dictionary of the Sciences, Arts, and Crafts, by a Company of Men of Letters, arranged by M. Diderot of the Academy of Sciences and Belles-lettres of Prussia: as to the Mathematical Portion, arranged by M. d'Alembert of the Royal Academy of Sciences of Paris, to the Academy of Sciences in Prussia and to the Royal Society of London.) was published in France between 1751 and 1772 in 28 volumes. Many consider The Enclyclopedia to be the definitive work of the enlightenment period. (Connor Haines)

Galileo Galilei (1564-1642): Italian astronomer and philosopher most famous for his invention of the telescope which led to his discovery of inertia. He observed how earth moved in relation to other planets, giving him an understanding of physics and mathematical abstraction. He rejected the Aristotelian view that a body in rest needs to be pushed constantly to keep moving, accepting Copernicanism instead. His new ideas startled the Church, and in 1633 he was forced to recant by the Inquisition. —-TB

Inspired by Tycho Brache and Johannes Kepler, Galileo too rejected the heliocentric theory. He came up with the Law of the Pendulum, which became the basis for clocks and made him famous. The Medici family supported Galileo until his condemnation in 1633. In order to recover fom debt, he created a mechanical compass to measure the aim of canonballs, something that also earned him fame. (Robert Jessell)

Harvey, William: William Harvey (1578-1657) was a British physician who, through dissections and direct observations, discovered the mechanics of circulation of the blood and thus, the true purpose of the heart, which he described in his book, On the Motion of the Heart and Blood. He also served as the physician to James I and Charles I. The fact that he is English also shows the spread of the scientific revolution. -DavisHeniford

Hobbes, Thomas - Hobbes lived through the English Civil War and wrote during the Interregnum, so he naturally kept in mind the political and social chaos that he witnessed. He wrote beautifully with a unique lyrical quality and believed that if there were no existing power, then life would be a battleground based on its state of nature. His proposed solution was a Leviathan (meaning a government with absolute power). He himself had seen the example of a weak government the lead to a civil war and in his ideal government you would have no right to your life, but it is better than the alternative because you only have to fear one thing instead of fearing everything. - Ellie Sheild

Leviathan - Written by Hobbs in 1651, this work argues that with no government, life is at war. At the core of Hobbes belief is that human nature is evil, so if we live at a time with no government, then we will constantly fear one another. If we established a Leviathan, which is an omnipotent sea monster (a metaphor for a absolute government) then you would give all your rights to the government in return for freedom from fear of the violence of others. - Ellie Sheild

Kepler, Johannes - Convinced that the Copernicus's heliocentric theory was correct, Kepler studied Brahe's data and proved that the planets had elliptical orbits. He also derived three laws of planetary motion (he published these in 1609 and 1619). Not many believed Kepler's observations until Newton proved them with mathematical data. However, Kepler worked closely with Galileo, and Galileo would expound upon Kepler's ideas and publish them with Kepler's encouragement. -DavisHeniford

Locke, John - Did not believe in the Divine Right of Kings, but rather the will of the people that should give the King their power. This idea was a big breakthrough. The state of nature is chaotic and needs a good government. If you fear the government and have no right to appeal, then you have not gained anything. Locke lived during a time when people rose up against monarchs. His ideas in the Two treatises on Civil Government were extremely advanced because they argued for women’s equality. - Ellie Sheild

2nd Treatise on Civil Government - Locke lived during a time when people rise up against monarch because he himself witnessed this rebellion.

*Also—This treatise published in 1689 is a result of Locke's time period which saw the Glorious Revolution and led him to write about the power of government residing in the people. This did not advocate a certain kind of government such as democracy but instead said man is a "tabula rosa" or "clean slate" in which the environment affects behavior. He argued that the government had a obligation to protect it's people and that absolute monarchy is part of the State Of Nature; however, his overall point of that the state of nature is absolute freedom, but that a government must be in place to protect the absolute freedom from encroachment using laws. Locke basically restated the conclusion of his era, which is that if government is not protecting the freedom of its people and acting positively, it is in the power of the people to start over that system and change it. (rory)

Tabula rasa - Written by Locke, this work emphasizes that human nature is a "blank slate"; it will be your environment that determines whether you are good or bad. So give the people a good government and give them life, liberty, and the right to property. Locke has trust in the basic nature of humans and believed that if not a good government than the people have a right to rebel. - Ellie Sheild

The whole point of Locke's Tabula Rasa is that everyone starts with a fresh mind that is featureless at birth. In the "Essay Concerning Human Understanding," Locke opposed Descartes, who believed that humans knew things innately. Internal experience, according to Locke, was reflection, while external experience was labeled to be sensation. These two aspects of human life can be divided into simple things, such as a color, and complex things, which are comprised of many simple traits. (Robert Jessell)

Linnaeus, Carolus a Swedish botanist and physician is most widely known for his title as the "Father of Taxonomy" for his foundations in binomial nomenclature for naming all living organisms. He was university educated and aided in the writing and publication of some of the first nomenclature books such as Systema Naturae, Genera Plantarum, and Flora Lapponica. His naming system as he aged became very calculated and systematic, using the basic characteristics of living creatures and diverging into details until the most accurate description of genus and species in Latin was the animal. His biological classification is still widely used today and is known as Linnean taxonomy. (rory)

Montaigne, Michel de- Montaigne was a Frenchman and a famous man in the world of literature. He created a new literary form called the essay which he expressed his concerns for the age and his innermost feelings. Montaigne was also influenced by philosophy in which he started a search for “self-knowledge”. (Lauren Burton)

Newton, Isaac: Sir Isaac Newton (1642-1727) triumphed science. With a mindset of “with the mind and science, man can do anything,” Newton studied a variety of subjects, including optics, math, and physics. In his Principia Mathematica (1687), Newton offered an explanation of the scientific principles governing the world without reference to God, introducing universal gravitation, experimentation and abstract reasoning, the inverse-square law, the three laws of motion, and calculus. He was a member of the Royal Society of Science in England, founded in 1660 and chartered by Charles II in 1602. Upon his death, Newton was buried amongst the kings in Westminster Cathedral with a state funeral, showing the triumph of science. (Meaghan Shimota)

Principia - Principia was published by Isaac Newton in 1687. Newton intended it to be a complete explanation of the scientific principles that govern the world without a single reference to God. It included the idea of universal gravitation, the inverse square law, and the 3 laws of motion (force equals mass times acceleration, an object put into motion will stay in motion unless something acts on it to stop it (inertia), and every action has an equal and opposite reaction). Newton also invented calculus, with Leibniz, and worked with optics. (Jane Wester)

Pascal, Blaise: Pascal (1623-1662) was a Frenchmen who explored a variety of subjects, like science, religion, and literature. Throughout his life, he struggled with an internal debate over faith and science. Pascal wrestled with the question of whether the truths of science or the truths of religion were more important, specifically in Pensées.(Meaghan Shimota)

Undoubtedly a great mathematician, Frenchman Blaise Pascal is credited with Pascal's triangle, the roulette machine, and being the first person to wear a wrist watch. Yet he was torn philisophically between choosing science or religion, shown in "The Wager." Ultimately Pascal came to the conclusion that a choice between the two had to be made, and one could not go wrong by choosing religion. (Robert Jessell)

Rousseau, Jean Jacque: Rousseau (1712-1778) was without a doubt the philosopher that was most influential in riling up the Revolution and its ideas; he focused on general will, virtues, and education in his writing. Rousseau was also a foe of Voltaire; this is understandable since both men differed at the core of their thought. Rousseau believed in a sort of pre-Romanticism, obsessed with virtue, passion, and learning through experience. His most famous works are Emile, which dealt with education based on experience versus book learning, and The Social Contract, based on general will and governing, both published in 1762. KatieMayo

Rousseau's belief in the rule of the general will was a peculiar idea, seeing that it wasn't quite the same as majority rule. He was more saying that in a sense the individual doesn't know what's good for them, and that in some cases individuals will be forced to surrender their natural rights to the general will. (CarterWiles)

Social Contract, Emile, general will, noble savage - These are a hodgepodge of terms related with Rousseau, but I will begin with the "Social Contract." Authored by Rousseau in 1762, the Social Contract was a document (which used romantic and flowery language) on political theory and it espoused Rousseau's beliefs on derivation of governmental authority. He wrote that "man is born free but everywhere he is in chains." He believed that man in the state of nature lived perilous lives, but, despite the savagery, man had a degree of compassion. Despite the fact that he never used the term, Rousseau's beliefs were associated with the concept of a noble savage. He also believed that in the ideal government, all would surrender natural rights to the general will, or the consensus of the people, (not majority rule) both men and women. What is good for the general will is good for every individual, and in this ideal, all people will be "forced to be free." He sided with the masses and not the nobility, and for this fact Rousseau was embraced by the French revolutionaries. Rousseau also recognized the limits of human reason, and an application of this thought can be seen in one of his books, Emile. Throughout Emile, Rousseau illustrates that education should be based upon both experience and reason, not simply from books. He believed that conscience mattered more than reason, and that virtue came from character which was derived from experience. -DavisHeniford

Royal Society of London: The Royal Society of London for Improving Natural Knowledge was formed in 1660 by the famous chemist Robert Boyle and eleven of his scientific peers in order to promote scientific thinking and progress. Charles II gave the Royal Society his stamp of approval and more when he chartered the organization in 1662. In many instances the Royal Society seemed to benefit all areas of society, however, eventually the Baconian principles behind the organization led it to become essentially a research center. One of the organization’s grand accomplishments, the publication of the Philosophical Transactions in 1665, marked the date of the original scientific journal, made from data and information collected and discovered by professionals.KatieMayo

Salons: Salons were the typical French settings for an intellectual discussion among the nobility about the latest philosophical works. Usually in Paris (but also in London, Vienna, etc), these gatherings were organized by women of wealthy homes, giving women the position of influence to determine who would be included on the invite list, what work would be discussed, and who would be invited again next time. While those who attended salons were obviously interested in philosophy and great works, these salons were not immune from the pomp, social hierarchy, and superficiality of the French nobility. KatieMayo

During the Enlightenment, the Parisian salons, and others modeled after it in Vienna, Berlin and London, were hotbeds of pomp, circumstance and new ideas. Women gained respect, not only as organizers of discussions, but also as capable thinkers. Madame Tencin, a wealthy salon owner, held meetings that lead to great works like Montesquieu’s Spirit of the Laws; nonetheless, the presence of the philosophers played a bigger role. Salons allowed philosophers to spread their new ideas, earning them notoriety while also allowing them to forge friendships with members of high society who patronized their ideas. In order to stay relevant, philosophers and socialites brought their wit, intellectualism, and pretentiousness; sharing a bad idea was just as likely to get you kicked out as would wearing the wrong top hat. In spite of their exclusivity, salons continued to grow in popularity among society’s upper crust, intriguing everyone from Benjamin Franklin to powerful royals. Anciet Charles G. Lemonnier paints the “Reading of Voltaire’s Tragedy”, depicting the seriousness and elegance of the salons. —-TB

Smith, Adam- Adam Smith (5 June 1723 – 17 July 1790) was a Scottish enlightenment philosopher and an important pioneer of modern economics. He is remembered for The Theory of Moral Sentiments (1759) and The Wealth of Nations (1776). The Wealth of Nations is considered the first modern work of economics and is still influential today. (Connor Haines)

Wealth of Nations- “The Wealth of Nations” or formally known as “The Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations” was written by a Scottish philosopher named Adam Scott. Scott was an important influence to the knowledge of economics and used his expertise when writing his book. He incorporated his knowledge as well as statements regarding a “political and social evolution”. (Lauren Burton)

Published in 1776, Adam Scott's finest work is thought of to be one of the most influential economic guidebooks in the new United States of America and the bourgeoisie of France. It mainly struck against feudalism in the eighteenth century. This counterproductive feudalism would hinder industrial growth and by extension, the economy. The five books that comprise "The Wealth of Nations" make Scott one of the modern capitalist progressives that stimulated the French Revolution. (Robert Jessell)

Invisible hand-The invisible hand refers to a metaphor used by Adam Smith in his study of economics. His basic idea is that competition between buyers and sellers of products (in other words, supply and demand) naturally leads to higher quality products being produced at lower costs. He believed that governments needed to do very little in the way of regulating a free-market economy because an “invisible hand” already naturally regulates the market. This idea is a major argument in favor of the laissez-faire economic philosophy. (Connor Haines)

State of nature-The concept of a state of nature was a concept popularized by both Locke and Hobbes. A state of nature is the natural state of man without the authority of a sovereign body or government. Hobbes said that if the people didn’t submit themselves to the authority of the government life would “nasty, brutish, and short.” While Hobbes and Locke disagreed on how much people might have to submit to the government and what type of contract would exist between the people and the government they did agree wholeheartedly on the fact that a state of nature was a bad thing that must be eliminated by creation of a government. (Caroline Beuley)

Vesalius, Andreas - Andreas Vesalius (1514-1564) published On the Fabric of the Human Body in 1543. This book overturned the ideas of Galen, the classical doctor who introduced the concept of the four bodily humors that, for thousands of years, had been believed to control bodily functions. Vesalius dissected human bodies to investigate their functions, applying a "sense of investigation" to the human body rather than to the cosmos for the first time in the modern era. He also made creepy drawings of dissected bodies. (Jane Wester)

Voltaire - (1694-1778) Voltaire was one of the big 3 enlightenment philosophers. He was very anti-christian, celebrated the chinese religion, and was very against "superstitious" things. Ecrasez l'infame = crush the infamous thing —> he wrote this at the bottom of each essay, this showed his anti-superstitious feelings. Wrote Candide …. (Louis Stephens)

Candide- essay/story/tragedy with a moral of "cultivate your gardens" - self-improve yourself and worry about yourself to change your bubble b/c it is impossible to change the world. Basically if all parts work together the whole will improve. (Louis Stephens)

Wollstonecraft, Mary- Mary Wollstencraft (1759- 1798) was known for her involvement with the equal treatment of women in society as well as other philosophical ideas. She wrote “The Vindication of the Right of Woman” a passionate article inspiring feminist ideas. She did not just stop with this article. She wrote several other pamphlets that became apart of the later Romantic movement. (Lauren Burton)

Vindication of the Rights of Women - Angered by the fact that the recently-drafted French Constitution (1791) had only given citizenship to certain male property owners, and also by the opinion held by most that women lacked the intellectual strength to participate in government, Mary Wollstonecraft wrote "Vindication of the Rights of Women" in 1792 as a response to Talleyrand, a prominent French politician. In this document, she argues against the constant belittlement and condescension that women receive and proclaims that women should no longer be taught "coquettish arts" which will not "cultivate her dormant faculties," but rather be allowed the "dignified pursuit of virtue and knowledge." She also makes the argument that women can not be said to be inferior simply because they have "always been subjugated." -DavisHeniford

Others to know:
John Locke- English… Two Treatises on Civil Government, 1689


David Hume- Scottish … Enquiry Concerning Understanding, 1739


Baron de Montesquieu- French… Spirit of the Laws, 1748
• Separation of powers:  Executive, Legislative, Judicial:  only really works in a small republic, not France or America

Adam Smith- Scottish… Wealth of Nations, 1776
• Economic liberalism, capitalism, free markets, laissez-faire, invisible hand

Mary Wollstonecraft- English… Vindication of the Rights of Women, 1792
Immanuel Kant- German… Critique of Pure Reason, 1781
• Highly influential in theory of knowledge
• Articulated a morality without reference to God
• Reason can understand everything but ourselves and God

Cesare Beccaria- Italian… Essay on Crime and Punishment, 1764
• humane punishments, anti-torture, anti-secrecy in deliberations, rights of the accused
• Punishments should deter crime and no more… anything more than that is excessive and tyrannical 
- Anti-death penalty
- “Mathematical calculation”: (his language) the punishment should outweigh the perceived benefit of the crime and nothing more