Rise Of The Dictators 2nd Period

Russian Revolution and Rise of the Dictatorships

Comintern-A movement in russian to spread communism throughout the world. Similar to Prestige Worldwide's efforts to spread funky beats and rock solid guitar rifts around the global and eventually the solar system. (MDog)

This communist organization was created in Moscow during the Russian Revolution and held many World Congresses starting in the year 1919 to promote the spread of communist ideals throughout the world by any means necessary. This group railed against values of the bourgeoisie and advocated violence at times. It would eventually be dissolved by Stalin during WWII. (Shredstar)

Dada art movement - The Dada movement was a reaction to the war. It followed the mindset that respect for tradition got Europe in the trenches. It rebelled against tradition, highlighting chaos and is often called anti-art. Dada painters such as Hoch and Duschamp used their art to encourage people not to go back to the old ways of thinking. (Laura)

Dawes Plan - An attempt to control Germany’s reparations and solve the crises over debt payments, the Dawes Plan provided that American bankers give massive loans to Germany and forgive large debts from the Allies. The Plan was mostly successful, and for the next six years, Germany made its reparations payments on schedule, albeit aided by loans from the United States. (Mackenzie)

Dictatorship of the Proletariat This was Stalin's ideal, but in reality the communist party was in control. The proletariat made up less than 3% of the population but Stalin catered his ideas to the lower class as a whole, manipulating them into supporting him. Jordan

Five Year Plan The Five Year Plans were Stalin’s replacement for Lenin’s New Economic Policy, and involved placing quotas on businesses to meet a certain level of production. All of that production would go to the government, so this resulted in people forging numbers so they could provide for themselves as well. Collectivization of Agriculture was part of these plans, and the whole system was a huge failure. Jordan

Goebbles, Josef - This guy is the Reich minister of propaganda. Propaganda was part of Hitler's plan to consolidate power. SHea

It’s also important to note that Joseph Goebbels also fought within the Reich Chamber of Culture, “[seeing] to it that cinema, theater, literature, art, and music all promoted Nazism” (textbook). Because of the work of Goebbels, anything within the media that didn’t promote Nazism was banned or destroyed, like abstract art, which we have all grown quite fond of. [RickyG]

Göring, Hermann - He was a German military leader and a leading member of the Nazi party. He founded the Gestapo in 1933 and was appointed commander of the Luftwaffe (German air force) in 1935. Hitler also declared him his successor and deputy in all his offices in 1941, meaning he was a pretty important guy. He was also addicted to morphine after the failed Beer Hall Putsch in 1923. (Chuma)

Griffith, Arthur - Arthur Griffith was an Irish politician in the early 20th century that would go on to negotiate the Anglo-Irish Treaty of 1921. This agreement secured more autonomy for the perennially subjugated Irish. (Shreds)

Gulags-large work or concentration like camps where Stalin would hold political prisoners and enemies of the state. (MDog)

It’s also important to note that the gulags were one of the largest weapons for political repression within the Soviet Union, used as both a threat and a punishment to citizens. Additionally, these were used as a threat so that productivity could be increased in various industries, dangling the possibility of being sent off to a gulag if a quota was not met. [RickyG]

Himmler, Heinrich-A leader of the SS and a high military and political leader. He is known for overseeing the concentration camp programs. (MDog)

Himmler was one of the highest ranking Nazi officials and was one of the most personably responsible for the Holocaust. He form Einsatzgruppen and oversaw the extermination of the Jews. He was also later in control of the Gestapo, or secret police. (Shredder)

Hitler Youth-A system of indoctrination of youths into a sort of eagle scouts/paramilitary hybrid program. The system prepared youths to join the military and be nurturing mothers. (MDog)

The Hitler Youth program became mandatory and quickly gained in membership. This large organization emphasized physical prowess and membership in the militaristic aspects of the "master race" rather than the academic pursuits that had previously been important in German culture. This group was more militaristic than analogues like the Boy Scouts of America and was perhaps more alike an ROTC program. Hikes, rallies, and calisthenics were organized to raise nationalistic fervor and ensure the allegiance of the youth to their Fuhrer. (Shredz)

Kellogg-Briand Treaty - This treaty was signed in 1928. It was fundamentally an extension of the Locarno Pact in 1924, which agreed to never go to war again. The K-B Treaty added the US and others to the previously made Locarno Pact of peace. Shea

Keynes, John Maynard - he was a British economist whose ideas and theories revolutionized modern macroeconomics. He rejected the common conception that free markets woudl guarantee employment, at least in the short term. Instead, he argued that "aggregate demand" determined economic activity and a lack of it was responsible for prolonged periods of unemployment. He argued that the best way to combat economic recession was through fiscal measures (pumping more money into the economy), and his ideas were adopted by most Western nations in the aftermath of WWII. (Chuma)

Kornilov Affair was an attempted coup in August 1917 led by General Lavr Kornilov, then the Commander-in-Chief of the Russian army, against the provisional government of Alexander Kerensky. The coup failed, and Kornilov was removed from his post and incarcerated in the Bykhov Fortress. (Chuma)

Kristallnacht also known as the the Night of the Broken Glass, "Crystal Night" refers to November 8-9, 1938, the night on which SA paramilitary carried out a pogrom on Jews in Nazi Germany and parts of Austria, while German authorities did nothing to intervene. At least 91 Jews were killed and 30,000 incarcerated in concentration on a night that would only foreshadow far more poignant manifestations of rabid Nazi anti-Semitism in the years to come. (Chuma)

kulaks - Kulaks are basically rich peasants, and Lenin wanted to kill them during the Dictatorship of the Proletariat. Shea

The aftermath of Lenin confiscating all of the land, lead to the Kulaks being upset. And understandably because what gave them a one up against the lower poor class, was now confiscated. Sarah T

It’s also important to note that in addition to the confiscation of their land, many kulaks were seized of their grain, killed, or sent off to Siberia to “till the unbroken soil” (textbook). In response to this, many of the kulaks decided to destroy their crops and animals so that the government could not take them. [RickyG]

Lateran Accords (Lateran Agreements) - One of the few successes under Italian fascism in which the Pope recognized both Italy and Mussolini in exchange for the Vatican city and money for church land that had been lost. (Hannah)
Catholicism was now promoted in Italian schools, and this agreement showed the world the increasing power of a dictator's will over that of the church. Mary

lebensraum - Meaning “living space”, lebensraum refers to the land believed by Nazis to be essential to economic prosperity and national existence. Hitler believed that Germany was superior to the Slavic countries in the East, and therefore Germany had the right to expand into that space and use its resources for Germany’s well-being. (Mackenzie)
Examples of this in action: 1936: Threat of taking the Rhineland with rearmament. 1938 Anschluss, seizing of Austria with out a fight. Early 1939: Hitler had taken Sudetenland and most all of Czechoslovakia. Mary

Locarno Pact - Was signed in 1924 between the Weimar Republic, France, Italy, Great Britain and Belgium in which they agreed to never use war again to solve a conflict. Of course this pact did not remain in tact however the “spirit of Locarno” portrayed the widespread resistance to war. (Hannah)
Later in 1926, Stressman and Briand, the leading authors of the pact, won a Nobel Peace Prize for their efforts in this pact because the world viewed them as peacemakers (as though they thought they could erase the atrocities of WW1) . Mary

March on Rome (1922) - Mussolini created the fascist party and by 1921 it had votes in parliament because the party was seen as the defender of law and order since the government wasn't standing up to socialists. In October of 1922, 300,000 of Mussolini's Blackshirts, his paramilitary, marched on Rome. It was peaceful, but intimidating enough that King Victor Emanuel III declared Mussolini Prime Minister, beginning his legal rise to dictatorship. (Laura)

New Economic Policy- Lenin’ N.E.P, New Economic Policy, allows some capitalism oddly enough. In order for their nation to survive Stalin acknowledges the need to have a somewhat capitalistic system to keep their heads above water. This was strongly rejected later by Stalin. Sarah T

Night of the Long Knives (June 30, 1934) - The night of the Long Knives was a purge in which Ernst Rohm (leader of the SA) and approximately eighty other army and SA leaders who Hitler believed to be his enemies were killed. After this date, the SS (led by Heinrich Himmler) gained power and influence in Nazi Germany. (Mackenzie)

Nuremburg Laws - The Nuremberg Laws were anti-Semitic laws in Nazi Germany proclaimed by Hitler in 1835 at the annual Nuremberg Rally. The Laws stated that Jews were not German citizens, prohibited that Jews marry Germans, disenfranchised Jews, and mandated that Jews wear the star of David. Additionally, the German government set out to “Aryanize” Jewish businesses. Jewish workers were dismissed, and non-Jewish Germans took over previously Jewish businesses and professions. (Mackenzie)

Politburo - The politburo was the provisional government led by Alexander Kerensky after the revolution against the Tsar. It was a liberal government, but because they were shortly overthrown by the Bolsheviks because they chose to stay in the war which the people saw as the Tsar's war. (Laura)

Rohm, Ernst Ernst Rohm led the S.A., and eventually gained influence in power within that group, enough to make Hitler worried. Rohm even spoke out against Hitler, not a good move, and Hitler killed him and 80 other officers during the night of the long knives as a consequence. Jordan

S.A. - Also known as the brownshirts was a group of thugs who beat up socialists and were led by Ernst Rohm. Later this group became too powerful and became a threat to Hitler which led to the creation of the SS. (Hannah)

Ernest Rohm was speaking against Hitler, obviously creating an opposing side to Hitler, which is exactly what he didnt want. He wanted there to be one way, his way. So on June 30, 1934, Night of the Long Knives, Hitler has 80+ SA and military leaders killed as well as Rohm, to eliminate any and all threats against him. Sarah T

Show Trials (USSR) - Stalin was very strict about allowing foreign journalists in the USSR. One of the ways he satisfied their quest for information about the inner workings of the USSR while simultaneously using them as propaganda correspondents was through show trials. Stalin would invite western journalists to trials where he knew the accused would answer the way he wanted, namely admitting to being an enemy to the country. These trials seemed to justify Stalin's innumerable executions to the western world. (Laura)

“Socialism in one country”
soviet - Soviets are worker councils in Russia. They are kind of like local governments. The Bolsheviks began to take over the soviets in 1917 as part of the Bolshevik Revolution. Shea

Stresemann, Gustav - Was the only man to maintain power for a long period of time in the Weimar Republic. He was foreign minister from 1924-1929 and convinced the miners to return to work. He helped negotiate the Dawes Plan, the Lacarno Pact and the Kellogg-Briand Treaty. However after reviving the Weimar Republic he died in 1929, the same year as the great depression and all faith was lost in the republic. (Hannah)
Trotsky, Leon- After Lenin died, Trotsky was in the running with Stalin to take his place. He is described as being condescending but brilliant. As an ally of the Zinoviev and supporter of the Comintern, he supported an immediate world revolution which was perceived as extreme and therefore dangerous by the Russian people. Unfortunately he met his death with an ice pick in Mexico when Stalin hunted his competitor down. Mary

Ulysses, by James Joyce (1922) - Part of the Surrealism Movement, James Joyce published Ulysses, which is a “presentation on a mythic scale of a single day in the life of a modest Dubliner,” written in eloquent language and taking part in the writing style, “stream of consciousness” (textbook). [RickyG]

War Communism- War Communism was another policy put in place by Lenin during the civil war from 1918-1920. This was created so that he had grounds to take what he wanted, when he wanted, in order to win, be successful, and stay in power during the war. This was a huge failure. Sarah T