Renaissance And Reformation 7th Period

7th period- Key Terms: Renaissance and Reformation



Alberti, Leon Battista

Boccaccio, The Decameron - "The Decameron" was al about the black plague as witnessed by Giovanni Boccaccio. He notes that the disease seemingly came from the Middle East to the west, and despite prayers and precautions, the illness was wildly deadly. The infected developed black pustules and most did not have medical training to know how to deal with the symptoms. Victims of the illness died quickly (within about three days of infection). The disease was highly contagious, and could be contracted merely by contact with a possession of an infected person. So many people had died that there was little law enforcement; life was a free-for-all. Many people deserted their cities, and they gave up on elaborate burial ceremonies. Death became a commonplace, and there was nothing anyone could do about it. ~Ashley Finke

Above, Ashley describes the Boccaccio’s Introduction to the Decameron, which did describe the effects of the Plague. The Decameron itself, written in 1351, was a collection of stories in a Canterbury Tales-esque style meant to humorously criticize the Church and other aspects of the Middle Ages. In the Decameron, 10 people escape plague-ridden Florence, and to avoid boredom, they each told 10 stories that were openly anti-clerical, resulting in 100 stories. – Erin :)

Brunelleschi, Filippo - Brunelleschi was one of the "Three Friends" who started a revolution in the arts by taking the humanists' lessons and applying them to art. Brunelleschi went to Rome to learn how to recreate the Classical architecture. His most famous contribution to architecture was his dome, the largest in Italy, that was built over a cathedral. He was forced to build the dome in rings as he could not use scaffolding due to the sheer size of the dome. His others buildings use a symmetrical simplicity that showcases a sense of harmony and balance. His work was important because he broke completely with his medieval ancestors and looked back to the classics for his inspiration. -Sam Schell

Castiglioni, Baldesar - Castiglioni wrote The Courtier in 1516 which was a guide for gentlemen and ladies on how to properly behave. It is written as a conversation between sophisticated men and women at the court of Duke Fedrigo Montefeltro of Urbino, the person who commissioned the text. The Courtier illustrates a shift in what was valued among nobels, increasingly they sought a humanist education and patronized artists and writers to gain prestige and fame. -Sam Schell

doge - “Doge” was the title given to the leader of Venice during the Renaissance. The doges of Venice were crucial to the development of art and culture during the Renaissance, for they sponsored many artists. They sponsored artists in order to compete with Florence, which was the other cultural capital on the Italian peninsula. -Leora Sharma

Erasmus, Desiderius - Desiderius Erasmus (1466/69 – 1536) was a leading scholar and writer of the Northern Renaissance who was best known for his book, The Praise of Folly. His book satirized and openly criticized the Church, which makes sense because Northern Humanists, more specifically Christian Humanists, emphasized church reform. Despite Erasmus’ criticism of the Church, he did remain loyal to it during the Protestant Reformation. - Erin :)

Ferdinand and Isabella

Gutenberg, Johann- Gutenberg perfected the movable printing press using a mixture of tin, lead, and antimony that would melt at a low temperature, cast well in the die, and be durable in the press. He printed his Bible in 1455, and it became the first major text reproduced using a printing press. The cost of books decreased, and information became more available to the public as a result of Gutenberg's press. It also helped preserve and standardize knowledge and increased the speed at which new ideas traveled. The printing press is analogous to the computer in our modern information age. -Grace Lowe

humanism - Humanism was the idea or belief that man had the potential to do whatever he pleased. Man had the intelligence, the opportunity, and the means to do great things; all that was needed was a motive. Humanists had incredible confidence in man's physical and mental abilities. The idea was not an entirely secular one, being that followers believed that this ability stemmed from God. Petrarch (often called the father of Humanism), wrote In Praise of Antiquity that outlines the problems with Middle Age thinkers: their lack of appreciation for the classics. Humanists believed that the teachings and styles of the Greeks and Romans, when combined with a devotion to God would lead to the ideal form of reasoning and way of living. ~Ashley Finke

Individualism - Individualism is the desire for recognition and fame for personal accomplishments. A prime example of individualism is Michelangelo’s Pieta (1499), which he sculpted anonymously. The statue began to receive a great amount of praise, but nobody knew who to direct it towards, so Michelangelo snuck in and scratched his name on the Madonna’s sash. He did this because he wanted personal recognition, and because he did so, he became the most famous Renaissance sculptor. Individualism can be seen as an effect in the increase of immorality and deviation from the Church, for people were no longer content to work for the sake of working – they wanted personal recognition, though it may have been considered immoral or selfish to ask for personal gain. -Leora Sharma

Inquisition - In 1231 Pope Gregory IX established a special papal court called the Inquisition in order to examine and punish heretics. In the ecclesiastical court, the accused were assumed guilty and could very rarely prove their innocence because they had no right of counsel and were often tortured and cruelly interrogated until they confessed and repented. While the Inquisition could not physically injure its victims, often the punishment was carried out by cooperative secular authority. The Inquisition, designed to strengthen the power of the church by suppressing heresy, ultimately failed because it linked the papacy with persecution and bloodshed. -Grace Lowe

Machiavelli, Niccolo - Niccolo Machiavelli was a political analyst from Florence most famous for his literary work The Prince, written in 1513. Machiavelli’s ideas for how princes should act were controversial in his day but are now considered to contain two fundamental truths of modern politics: the necessity of national unity based on a common language and culture, and the preservation of this unity through the immense power of the state. Machiavelli ultimately takes a realistic rather than idealistic approach to governing a state. For example, he states that a prince should appear, if possible, to be completely virtuous, while underneath he should be cunning, animalistic, and a bit cruel if that means he can insure the safety of his state - Erin Haseley :)

Medici, Lorenzo de - one of the Medici family who were very wealthy and prominent citizens of Florence. The family cultivated Renaissance art and flourished in the banking industry. Lorenzo was an arch-enemy of Savonarola who preached strongly against the Renaissance and the humanism that it inspired. On his deathbed, Lorenzo called Savonarola to take his confession. Sav said that he must give up secularism and his control over the city. Lorenzo refused, wanting his son to remain in power in Florence, and he died without giving his confession. ~Ashley

Palladio, Andrea
Papal States - Territories owned and controlled by the pope from 754 until 1870. The Vatican was the only Papal state to become it's own nation after the unification of Italy. - Hayes

patron of the arts Venice, Florence, and the Vatican all became major cultural centers because of their patrons of the arts. Patrons of the arts gave financial support to struggling artists and publicized their works. The Medici family is the ultimate “patron” family, and because of its sponsoring of artists, Florence became the artistic capital of the Italian city-states. The papacy also became a huge sponsor of the arts and collected art from around the world. The patrons sponsored artists in order to show off the power of their city-states, which is why there was such an outpouring of art from Florence and Venice – both wanted to prove to the other how powerful they were, but they would not fight. -Leora Sharma

Peace of Lodi (Treaty of Lodi)
The Peace of Lodi ended a war among Milan, Florence, and Venice in 1454, allowing the states to compete for superiority in artistic and intellectual fields, not only because they could no longer compete on the battle field, but also because these states now had the money to support the arts, since they did not have to fund a war, thus encouraging the thoughts, ideas, and talents of philosophers and artists and allowing the Renaissance to strengthen and spread.-Kristen

perspective Perspective is the artistic technique in which artists use shadows and different leveling in order to convey depth to the viewer. The foreground and background are often blended together in order to show a gradual change in depth. The use of perspective makes a work of art look more three-dimensional than two-dimensional. The use of perspective is one of the major differences between Renaissance and medieval art. -Leora Sharma

Petrarch (1304-1374) was a profound writer of poetry who became one of the most influential leaders of the Humanist movement. Petrarch had sought moral guidance in a world that was being overcome with greed and corruption. The pope, who at this time resided in Avignon, lived in excess, and did not provide the leadership that Petrarch sought. He looked to previous decades for guidance as well, which he referred to as the "middle ages," but could not identify with their vita completiva either. His resolution was the adoption of the pagan ideas of antiquity (Plaro, Aristotle, etc.) combined with his own christian beliefs. The result was a movement that emulated classical ideals of the power of man, yet still acknowledged that these powers were a gift from God. Only then could one find moral guidance, and lead a vita activa. -Alexis Giger

Pizan, Christine de - Christine de Pizan (1363-1434) might have been the first published and moderately successful female European writer. After the death of her husband in 1390, Christine wrote a vast amount of typically romantic poems. Christine also wrote The Book of the City of Ladies: Advice for a Wise Princess, in which she urges women in court to behave perfectly and modestly so as to keep a good reputation. She notes that it is of the utmost importance for a princess to be perceived as wise and chaste so she will consequently be feared and respected. - Erin :)

Pope Alexander VI
Pope Julius II
quattrocentro Florence
reconquista - Over several centuries, 800~1350, christians retook the Iberian peninsula (Spain/Portugal) from the muslims who had control of it. The muslims had taken over when Rome collapsed and were very successful and wealthy. Once the christians had retaken power, they flourished and Spain became a world power for many years. - Hayes

“Renaissance Man” - A general term used to describe the ideal man of the Renaissance. A man who is well read in many different fields, including the arts, mathematics, writing, the classics, and more. He is skilled in a wide range of disciplines and values learning above all. Da Vinci is often called the quintessential Renaissance man. - Hayes

Savonarola - Savonarola was a Dominican monk who lived in Florence during the Renaissance. He led a movement that preached against the ideals of the Renaissance: secularism, individualism, and humanism, and he challenged and questioned public figures like Lorenzo de Medici, Boticelli, and even the pope on the moral grounds that the movement was anti-Christian. He organized giant demonstrations called "Bonfires of the Vanities" in which his followers burned anything that was at all secular or materialistic. Boticelli was eventually inspired by Savonarola's message and burned most of his early works. Lorenzo de Medici asked Savonarola to take his confession on his deathbed, but when Savonarola told him to give up his throne, Medici refused and died without having given a last confession. ~Ashley

Matters had reached such a point that some popes used their spiritual powers to raise funds for their secular activities. High ecclesiastical offices were bought and sold, and men were attracted to these positions by the opportunities they provided for wealth and power, not by a religious vocation. Man now had secular desires to acquire wealth and success and the control over such things was deteriorating. - Chuka Anyafo
Valla, Lorenzo, “On the Donation of Constantine”
Vasari, Giorgio



95 Theses This document was written in 1517 by Martin Luther and helped spark the Protestant movement. Luther's anger against the Catholic Church was sparked when Johann Tetzel arrived in Wittenburg, Saxony to raise funds for the Church through the sell of indulgences. Luther was particularly enraged by the sale of future indulgences, or pardons for sins not yet committed. In response to this, Luther wrote the 95 Theses and nailed them to a church door on Oct 17, 1517. The arguments are mainly against the sale of indulgences, and at this point Luther still wanted to reform the Church, not break away from it. -Sam

Act of Supremacy

Anabaptists The Anabaptists were a group of radical reformers who interpreted the Bible literally and therefore declared that only mature adults who could choose to accept God's grace should be baptized, rather than infants who were oblivious to the sacrament's meaning and purpose. On the other hand, Luther and Zwingli sought to maintain Church authority and order and insisted that baptism was the infant's entry into the Church. The radical reformers were called Anabaptists or "rebaptizers" by their enemies, and the term was soon (incorrectly) applied to all radicals. -Grace

Anglican Church The Anglican Church was founded by King Henry VIII of England more for political reasons than religious reasons. King Henry VIII inherited the fear that his hold on the throne was insecure from his father King Henry VII, who usurped the throne from Richard III in the aftermath of the War of the Roses, an English dynastic civil war between the Yorks and the Lancasters. Henry VIII wanted a male successor to the throne, but his wife (his brother’s widow, Catherine of Aragon) wasn’t producing any sons, so he wanted a papal annulment (basically a papal declaration that the marriage was never religiously/spiritually valid in the first place), but the Pope was under the control of the Holy Roman Emperor Charles V, who was also the nephew of Catherine of Aragon, and did not want his aunt kicked to the curb. Henry VIII’s sleazy right-hand man, Thomas Cromwell, came up with the idea of breaking away from the church, taking advantage of England’s already present religious dissent. However, Henry VIII was still very much a Catholic, and the Anglican Church’s doctrines were no different from those of the Catholic Church except that annulment of marriage was allowed. —Connie

Aquinas, Thomas (scholasticism) (1225-1274) St. Thomas Aquinas is considered one of the greatest Christian theologians who was famous for his Summas, which explained his Scholastic philosophy. Aquinas reconciled human reason and faith to lead to a single truth. There were, however, some aspects of religion that he deemed to be based solely on faith, and that one could simply not fathom, for example, the Holy Trinity, based on observation alone. Like later Humanist writers, Aquinas based his theories of reason on Aristotle's classical philosophy, but unlike his successors in the Renaissance, he believed that while God's mind is infinite, the Human mind is finite. -Alexis Giger

Babylonian Captivity (Papacy in

Brethren of the Common Life
(Thomas a Kempis)
Calvin, John

Catholic Reformation (Counter Reformation)
Refers to those who see the Catholic revival of the 16th century as a response to the Reformation. Those who consider it a natural development within the Church refer to the Religious revival as the catholic reformation. The papacy was aware of its loss of control over millions of Christians, but a great deal of the effort to put the Church in order was a result of strong faith and a long-standing determination to purify belief and practice. - Chuka Anyafo

Charles V

consubstantiation v. transubstantiation Consubstantiation is the belief, held by Catholics, that during the Eucharist (Communion) the priest actually performs a miracle and turns the bread and wine into the actual body and blood of Christ. Transubstantiation is the Protestant belief, taught by Luther, that the bread and wine are symbolic of the body and blood of Christ, and they are not physically changed during the ceremony. -Sam

Council of Trent The Council of Trent was a general council of Church leaders who met in 1545, led by Pope Paul III (a good pope committed to reform of the Catholic Church and the elimination of corruption) to redefine and clarify theological uncertainties and differences in practices, many of the decisions inspired by the writings of Thomas Aquinas. Catholicism became committed primarily to the outward and sacramental heritage of Christianity, focusing on aspects that Protestantism rejected. The Bible is not the sole authority on Christianity; Church tradition is also significant, as are good works and the seven sacraments. The Council of Trent also established the importance of elaborate ceremonies/rites and the priest. Overall, the Council of Trent led to the revitalization of the Catholic faith as leadership became more firm, corruption was removed, and doctrine was clarified. —Connie

cuius regio, eius religio
means "whose region, his the religion" in Latin. Part of the peace of Augsburg in 1555 that allowed the princes of the different principalities in the HRE to choose whether their principality would be Catholic or Lutheran. Kristen.

Diet of Worms By 1520 Martin Luther's ideas were challenging the authority of the papacy and the Catholic doctrine, so Pope Leo X issued a bull to excommunicate him, which he defiantly tossed into a public bonfire, calling the pope an Anti-christ. In an effort to restore order, the Holy Roman Emperor, Charles V, called a meeting or Diet of the empire at Worms and summoned Martin Luther to defend himself against the pope's decree. Luther refused to confess his heretical acts, and in response, Charles V said "a single friar who goes counter to all Christianity for a thousand years must be wrong" and issued an edict for his arrest and the burning of his works. However, before Luther could be arrested, Frederick III of Saxony kidnapped him and protected him at the Wartburg castle. The result of the Diet of Worms demonstrated the failure on the part of the papacy and the emperor to suppress heresy. -Grace

Dissolution of the Monastaries
(Henry VIII) - Henry was a character. Shaped by the War of the Roses, Henry VIII was the King of England who wanted a male heir but never really got one. Henry went through the divorce, murder, etc to finally get his heir, and in the process of getting his divorces, created the Anglican Church. (Louis Stephens)
Elizabeth I

Frederick the Wise was the Duke of Saxony. After the Diet of Worms, he protected Martin Luther from persecution by kidnapping him and keeping him captive in the Castle Warberg. He was a previous candidate for Holy Roman Emperor but Charles V was elected instead. He was later admired for his advocacy of Lutheranism and the reformation, and was commemorated as a Christian ruler in the Calendar of Saints of the Lutheran Church. - Hayes

Great Schism (1378-1417) in 1377 Pope Gregory XI returned to Rome from Avignon, to the joy of the Roman people, but died a short time after. The Roman people had suffered during the Avignon papacy and needed papal revenues, but the French were not so keen to give up their tremendous income, which had followed the Pope to Avignon. Pope Urban VI was selected by the college of Cardinals to satisfy both the French and Roman people, but failed to live up to French expectations. A second pope was then elected in Avignon to counteract the injustice in Rome. The entire christian population split as individuals chose a pope to support. to add to the confusion, a group of Conciliarists, who hoped that the church would reform its constitution and lessen the power of an individual pope with the addition of a general council, elected a third pope at the Council of Pisa (1409). The confusion finally ended at the Council of Constance (1414-1418), when Martin V, a Roman cardinal, was selected to be the single leader of the church. -Alexis Giger

Johan Gutenberg: Johannes Gutenberg was a German man who invented the movable-type printing press in 1455 that catalyzed the Information Revolution. Gutenberg’s printing press facilitated the dispersion of new ideas and made books more accessible across all of Europe, effectively allowing for the both the Renaissance, humanism, and the Protestant reformation to expand as widely as they did. —Connie

Huguenots - Huguenots were the followers of John Calvin (specifically in France). The Huguenots had to flee from france because of their religious differences (France was Catholic) (Louis Stephens)

Ignatius Loyola Ignatius Loyola was the third of the great religious innovators of the 16th century, but unlike Luther and Calvin, he never broke away from the Catholic Church; instead, he aimed to reform it from within. He wrote The Spiritual Exercises, a manual that dealt with the discipline and training necessary to be a good Christian and the personal attainment of grace, but it emphasized that believers should commit themselves to good works because man has free will and should not rely on the grace of god, counter to the theory of Protestants. Loyola founded a new religious order supported by the Catholic Church, the Society of Jesus (Jesuits) that has four principal functions: preaching, hearing confessions, teaching, and missionary work, and it became very instrumental to the Catholic revival, winning back the faith and trust of people by education and their strict discipline, winning the church many converts, and turning Catholics into militant activists. —Connie

Indulgences - indulgences are ways to have sin forgiven, lowering one's time in purgatory. Leading up to the Protestant Reformation, indulgences were being sold, effectively allowing Church members to pay their way into heaven. Additionally, future indulgences were created by the Warrior Pope Julius II, and then sold so that people could stockpile sin-forgiveness. (Louis Stephens)

Knox, John

Lollards were the followers of John Wycliffe that were active in the 13-1400s. John Wycliffe, an Oxford professor, began assaulting the Catholic church, and believed that the Bible should be printed in English so that people no longer had to rely on priests for a christian message. Wycliffe also attacked the corruption and landownership of the clergy and believed that only those predestined to go to heaven were suitable to lead the church. In particular, Wycliffe attacked the power of "transubstantiation," which is clerical authority to perform the miracle of turning the bread in wine into the body and blood of Christ. Wycliffe's followers thought accordingly, but, unlike Wycliffe who died unharmed, the lollards were hounded often, and survived as an underground movement until the Protestant Reformation. -Alexis Giger

Luther, Martin
More, Thomas

Peace of Augsburg
In 1555, Holy Roman Emperor Charles V finally gave into the demands of the rebellion of the nobility and allowed the princes of the principalities to determine the religion of their principality for themselves, although they had to be either Catholic or Lutheran. This was also largely influenced by the fact that Charles was also fighting wars against the French and the Turks. Since Charles was supposed to be the defender and protector of Catholicism, this was his ultimate failure and soon after he abdicated the throne, giving the HRE to his brother and Spain, the Netherlands, and the new world to his son Philip II. Kristen.

Peasant’s Revolt (German)
A Peasant uprising began in Swabia in 1524 and quickly engulfed the southern and central parts of the empire. Inspired by Luther's teachings that faith was all that an individual needed to be saved, the peasants published a list of 12 demands in 1525. They wanted an end to the restrictions and burdens imposed by their overlords like prohibitions on hunting and fishing, excessive rents and services, and unlawful punishments. They also had two religious demands which were the right to choose their own pastors and the refusal to accept any authority other than Scripture to determine whether their demands were justified. - Chuka Anyafo

The belief that God has preordained whether a person will be saved or damned, and nothing can be done to reverse this fate. - Chuka Anyafo [should include something about Calvin and his teachings on the idea]

“priesthood of all believers”
Society of Jesus (Jesuits)

this idea of a state being run by some sort of religious authority was used by both Ulrich Zwingli and john Calvin. They believed the state should be able to enforce morality and require Church attendance, and those that did not abide by these rules would be punished under the law, sometimes with execution. Kristen.

Weber, Max (1864-1920) in 1904, Max Webber had the idea of the puritan work ethic, which is traced back to the Calvinists. John Calvin believed in a predestined elect, and all of society would try and emulate this elect. One sign of the elect was wealth, therefore making Protestants lust or money. (Louis Stephens)

Zwingli, Ulrich - Zwingli, a follower of Erasmus, led a movement during the Reformation in hopes of establishing a theocracy in Zurich, Switzerland where he lived. He wasnted the city to be ruled by a council of religious elders that enforce moral behavior and church attendance. Anyone who didn't follow his decrees could be subject to harsh punishment. Principles: anti-ritual, simplified practices, moral behavior, and strict church attendance. Great example of the resulting movements after Martin Luther —> the Anti-Authority idea spreads fast. ~Ashley