Renaissance And Reformation 1st Period

1st period- Key Terms: Renaissance and Reformation



Alberti, Leon Battista-Alberti (1404-1472) is a well known Italian painter, writer, architect, and Humanist often considered on of the Italian Renaissance's "universal men." He was born to a wealthy Florentine family exiled in Genoa, and received most of his early education and passion for mathematics from his father. His education continued at a boarding school in Padua and finished at the University of Bologna where shorty afterwards he took holy orders and became a secretary in the Papal Chancery in Rome. Alberti is best known for his treatise "Della Famiglia" (On the family), his book On Painting, and his work as an architect for Pope Nicholas V. During his life Alberti is known to have befriended sculptor Donatello and architect Brunelleschi which centered his works around the importance of difference artists working together and mastering all forms of art. (RORS)

Boccaccio, The Decameron - the Decameron is a collection of fictional stories set in 1348, during the plague years. In it, ten people tell ten stories each. The stories are often bawdy, and priests and other powerful people are often made fun of. The Decameron is an excellent window on what people cared about at the beginning of the Renaissance. Boccaccio, a Florentine, was friends with Petrarch, was influenced by Petrarch's strong morals, and learned Greek at his urging. (Jane Wester)

Brunelleschi, Filippo - Filippo Brunelleschi's (ca. 1377 to 1466) name will forever live in history because the defied all oods, and proved his capabilities when he constructed the Dome of Florence Cathedral from 1420-1436. Being the largest dome in Europe since the Fall of the Roman Empire, it posed many structural challenges, but Bruneleschi's engineering skills allowed him to use no scaffolding by building the dome in rings. Brunelleschi's dome with its 135-foot diameter gave more than just a ceiling to the cathedral, for it represented the ingenuitity for everything classical revival embodied in the arts, literature, and music. - Ellie Sheild

Castiglioni, Baldesar - In 1516 Castiglioni published The Book of the Courtier, whose astonishing popularity helped promote the new ideals of fine behavior. Set in the court of Duke Montefeltro with both men and women present, The Courtier was a conversation among the sophisticated class. Because it is almost a dialouge between men, the Book gives voice to various men's opinion during these days, likelack of respect toward women, but it was not necessarily what Castiglioni believed. Castiglioni's work became almost a guidebook for gentlemen and ladies on how-to act with elegance and positively effected many during the time of the High Renaissance. Ellie Sheild

doge: By 1400 the city of Venice had become one of the most prosperous in the world, and its government stability was a role model to southern Europe. Its richest inhabitants successfully controlled the government in the form of an oligarchy. A doge was elected from amongst the group of nobles. This doge was the highest ranked official in the entire republic. Normally he would be an old man in order to keep a cycle of leaders moving rather than have any one man stay in power too long. (Robert Jessell)

Erasmus, Desiderius- Erasmus (1469-1536) is considered a father of the Reformation and aided in the spread of Renaissance ideas northward into Germany and the Netherlands. He is a well known Humanist but also possessed a deeply rooted dislike for Scholastic theory, believing that Scholasticism fundamentally undermined Christianity. His most famous works, specifically Adagia (c. 1500) and Moriae encomium (c. 1511) ("In praise of Folly") were attempts to reveal the abuses within the Church and criticize the corruption;however, Erasmus never took the idea as far as Martin Luther. (RORS)

Ferdinand and Isabella-King Ferdinand II and Queen Isabella I are often considered the creators of Spain, due to the unification of the country and religion of Spain under their rule. They were married in October 1469 and had five children, including Queen Catherine of England. Ferdinand was a war time king throughout his reign and fought not only his own nobles, for their loyalty to the crown, but also his own people who were not Catholic. Isabella and Ferdinand started the Spanish Inquisition in 1478 to unite Spain under a common religion and expel all Moors and Jews from the land. The tactics used during the Inquisition are known to be very brutal and violent; however, it did gain Ferdinand the title "Ferdinand the Catholic" given to him by Pope Alexander VI in 1496. The powerful couple is also known for their support of Christopher Columbus and the conquest of Granada. (RORS)

Gutenberg, Johann: A German jeweler and stonecutter, Johann Gutenberg perfected cheap and efficient printing by using adjustable metal type and a special alloy that held up over time. After the printer's completion in the mid-fourteen hundreds, the Bible became the first book reproduced in 1455. However, the new ability to print more books faster and lessen their price caused an Information Revolution, in which libraries were able to offer a wider range of literature. Perhaps the most significant effect of Gutenberg's printing was the speed of which new ideas could be shared, allowing Renaissance ideas like humanism, secularism, and individualism to spread and continue to weaken medieval structure and values. (Meaghan Shimota)

humanism: Fathered by Petrarch, Humanism was an intellectual awakening. This movement focused on attaining knowledge of the ancient world through the classics in the hope of learning a code to live life by. Humanism was by no means secular;many Humanists, including Petrarch, hoped to augment their religious creed through classical learning. (KatieMayo)

individualism - as with humanism, individualism was founded in the belief that "man is rightfully named a magnificent miracle and a wondrous creation" (Pico Della Mirandola). This is a Renaissance mindset that represents a huge change from the "for dust thou art, and unto dust shalt thou return" Middle Ages mindset (KJV Bible Genesis 3:19). Consider that for all the stunning cathedrals constructed during the Middle Ages, we hardly know the names of any of the architects; they were built over several generations and made for the glory of God, not for personal glory. Compare this to Michelangelo scratching his name into the sash of his Pieta: it was so important to his Renaissance ego to get credit that he was willing to essentially deface the sacred image of Mary and Jesus. The emphasis on the individual increased exponentially with the start of the Renaissance. (Jane Wester)

Inquisition: With the growing threat of heresy toward the Church, Pope Gregory IX instituted a new papal court in 1231. This new court was meant to investigate and punish the dangerous heretics. The inquisitors visited towns on regular intervals to go on their witchunt, but they accepted bribes and made false errors in judgment. Often these inquisitors were from mendicant orders, particularly the Dominicans and Franciscans, who the pople had control over. On their trips, they would first ask for any confessions and if there was suspicion around any person, the inquisitors would call at least two witnesses to testify on the suspect's religious beliefs. However, oftentimes a supposed heretic was considered guilty before innocent. Forms of punishment included torture and death. The Inquisition had a terrible effect on the image of the Church, as it came to be associated with bloody persecution and even more corruption. (Robert Jessell)

Machiavelli, Niccolo: Born in Florence in 1469, Machiavelli is often cited for his knowledge and comments about the political systems of his time. His most famous work, The Prince (written in 1513), provided the foundation for contemporary political ideologies by focusing on the routes to creating, maintaining, and ruining national unification. Machiavelli writes in collaboration with the Renaissance ideal of improvement; he plays with this concept by contemplating the impact of religion and law on the health of a nation. But looking past some of Machiavelli’s more radical ideas, his overarching point is that successful governments promote civility when all members are invested. (Katie Mayo)

Medici, Lorenzo de: Lorenzo de Medici, also known as "Il Magnifico," headed up the family of unofficial dictators of the Florence republic and cultural hub. Medici, a wealthy banker and patron of the arts and wisdom (especially humanism), funded the Neo Platonic Academy where Pico studied. Medici lived from 1449 to 1492. (KatieMayo)

Palladio, Andrea: Andrea Palladio (1508-1580) was an Italian architect. His designs, particularly for the Villa Rotunda (1550-51), and his book The Four Books of Architecture (1570) made him one of the greatest architects of 16th-century northern Italy, and one of the most influential architects in Western architecture. (Connor Haines)

Papal States - an area in central Italy ruled by the Popes from 754 until 1870 which surrounded the Vatican, the center of all papal states. At this time Italy wasn't a full country, but only a group of city states, and the Pope claimed control over his Papal States, and competed politically with families like the Medici. (Carter Wiles)

patron of the arts: As humanism changed the art world, it also changed the symbols of status among nobility. While large castle, winning wars, and fancy horses still impressed other nobles, in order to achieve immortality and a reputation as moral, rich, and charitable, princes began to sponsor artists. Being immortalized in painting, as shown in the Venetians portraits we looked at in class, or being remembered as the patron of a famous work of art was the goal of most of these new “patrons of the arts.” The church was the most significant patron, but other families, such as the Medici, were also well-known for their patronage of art. It is thanks to these patrons that we have so much magnificent art from this time period.-CarolineBeuley

Peace of Lodi (Treaty of Lodi) - the Peace of Lodi lasted from 1454 to 1494. The Treaty of Lodi in 1454 meant the end of a war between Milan, Florence, and Venice. During this forty-year period, the Italian city-states competed culturally rather than militarily, leading to great progress in art and learning. Lorenzo di Medici had the money to fund the Neoplatonic Academy during this time because he wasn't spending money on war. The period was one of the first balances of power in European history. France's invasion the region in 1494 brought the Peace of Lodi to an end. (Jane Wester)

perspective: Reborn in the Renaissance, perspective was an artistic technique of making one- and two-dimensions appear to be three dimensional. Giotto was the first painter to use perspective; specifically, in Giotto's "Lamentation" (c.1304-1306), angels fly in different directions through foreshortening. Although basically all Renaissance painters utilized perspective, Leonardo da Vinci would become the master of linear perspective, most visible in "Last Supper" (1497). (Meaghan Shimota)

Petrarch: Hailed as the intellectual patron of the Renaissance and the Humanist movement, Petrarch lived from 1304 to 1374. Although he believed in the teachings of the Church, Petrarch had lived through the Babylonian Captivity, an era of unprecedented Church corruption, and through his inability to look to the Church for moral guidance, Petrarch looked to the classics. Petrarch based his life upon a "vita activa," the origin of humanism, secularism, education and individualism, instead of a "vita contemplativa," the mindset of the Middle Ages.(KatieMayo)

Pizan, Christine de - Christine de Pizan was a widow who wrote The Book of the City of Ladies in 1404, as well as many poems. She lived from 1363 to 1434. We read her "Advice for a Wise Princess," in which she urges princesses and their ladies to avoid "go[ing] about with their heads raised like wild deer," because a more modest attitude is more appropriate for court. Although she says that a good princess will be "feared and respected," her advice is different from Machiavelli's words to princes because she recommends being "wise and chaste," "kind and gentle," and using a "mere look…and her subdued reception" to keep subjects in line, whereas Machiavelli discusses war, punishment, and the law in his advice to male leaders. This distinction is important, because while women in positions of power had some influence, they almost always lacked the threat and direct power entrusted to their husbands and fathers, and therefore had little need for Machiavelli's serious advice. (Jane Wester)

Pope Julius II: Pope Julius II (1443-1513) (r. 1503-13), also called “The Warrior Pope,” was a powerful ruler and great supporter of the arts. He led efforts to prevent French domination of Italy, but he is most remembered for his patronage of the arts. He was a close friend of Michelangelo and supported other artist including Bramante and Raphael. He commissioned Michelangelo’s famous paintings in the Sistine Chapel and Raphael’s frescoes in the Vatican. (Connor Haines)

quattrocentro Florence: The center of the artistic revolution during the Renaissance came from Florence and its surrounding areas. During the quattrocento, schools began teaching art to students much more efficiently. Perspective emerged in painting altering depth perception to something more realistic. Great works from many different types of art came out of this era by painters and sculptors who found inspiration from Donatello. This time period was an artistic revolution, and it produced much more advanced pieces than that of previous centuries. (Robert Jessell)

reconquista: Throughout the Middle Ages, Christians sought to regain control of the Iberian Peninsula from the Muslims currently in control of the area due to religious and cultural conflict between the two groups. By 1236, the Christians had reattained all but Granada. After reconquering the Christian kingdoms, Christian rulers allowed Muslims and Jews to self-govern in communities. In addition, the Christian leaders bought followers throughout the reconquista to ensure public support after regaining power. The reconquista united Christians under a common goal in a way comparable to the Crusades. Unlike the Crusades, the reconquista strengthened medieval order by broadening the reach of the pope, as Christianity spread to more people. (Meaghan Shimota)

“Renaissance Man”: The Renaissance Man was a sort of jack of all trades, stemming from the Platonic idea (and later Neo-Platonic idea of Ficino) that man must strive to be perfect as well as the biblical idea that "God has endowed man with the seeds of every possibility." For example, Michelangelo was a painter (Sistine Chapel, "Last Judgement"), sculptor ("Pieta" and "David"), poet, and architect (dome atop Saint Peters). Similarly, Brunelleschi's "Il Duomo" was the first dome built since antiquity because the technique of dome-building had been lost. Brunelleschi not only built a structurally sound dome, showing skills of an engineer and architect, but also built an aesthetically pleasing dome, showing artistic and geometric skills. (Meaghan Shimota)

Savonarola—Savonarola (1452-1498) was a Catholic monk who is best known for preaching against the secularism in Florence supported by Lorenzo d' Medici. Savonarola was a member of the Dominican order in Bologna and preached fervently about the corruption of the Church and the materialism in Italian society leading him to create "bonfires of the vanities" in which Italians would throw their signs of wealth and luxury in to a bonfire as a symbol against secularism. Savonarola was such a powerful speaker he managed to get famous painter Botticelli to join his movement and even burn some early masterpieces and, on his deathbed, was called by Lorenzo d' Medici to perform the last rites and give final guidance, though Lorenzo did not accept Savonarola's terms. However, his rigor and claims of prophecy eventually led to his excommunication from the church in 1497 and after trial in 1498 was burned in the Piazza della Signoria in Florence. (RORS)

Secularism: Literally, the indifference to religion. Whereas religious themes penetrated all aspects of society during the Middle Ages (1150 and 1250), a shift toward the secularism occurs during the Renaissance (1350-1500). An emphasis on the study of antiquities acts as a catalyst, sparking people’s interest in pseudo-science, art, money, and power. The change is greatly represented by the works of great thinkers; Machiavelli, for example, discussed how a prince might keep his power, instead of focusing on religious themes indicative of the medieval age. His message varies greatly from that of Abelard’s, “Sic et Non”, which discourages the faithful from thinking contemplatively about religion, but actively. -Tahira Benjamin

Valla, Lorenzo, “On the Donation of Constantine” : Italian humanist, and Catholic priest who lived from 1407 to 1457; "On the Donation of Constantine" (1439) is a critique of the papacy's claim to secular rule. -Tahira Benjamin

Vasari, Giorgio: Giorgio Vasari (1511-1574) was an Italian architect, painter and writer. He is best known for his biographies of Renaissance artists. His most well known book is Lives of the Most Eminent Painters, Sculptors, and Architects (1550, 2nd ed., 1568) in which he gives a history of Western art. (Connor Haines)



95 Theses - Martin Luther nailed these to a church door in Wittenburg, Saxony (a Holy Roman Empire principality) on October 30, 1517. He was frustrated with church corruption generally, but especially by the recent visit to Wittenburg by papal representative Johann Tetzel, who basically had a traveling theater show to raise money for the construction of elaborate cathedrals. Tetzel's greatest offense, in Luther's eyes, was that he was selling future indulgences, allowing rich Catholics to shorten their time in purgatory. Leo X, a very young and wealthy pope who had much more interest in partying than in religion or church reform, was pope at this time and Luther felt like he had no recourse in the church structure. Luther had no intention of creating a new church in 1517: it wasn't until 1520 that he began denying the authority of the church. The theses instead just explained Luther's thoughts on indulgences; as word spread, Tetzel's sales suffered and other monks (Luther was an Augustinian monk, while Tetzel and many of Luther's critics were Dominicans) became angry. (Jane Wester)

Act of Supremacy: The English Parliament passed the Act of Supremacy in 1534. It declared Henry VIII as “The Supreme Head of the Church of England.” Henry VIII desired this split with Rome so that he could marry Anne Boleyn, but the act also resulted in other effects, such as the dissolution of monasteries and the selling of their land sold to nobles and merchants. Most of England accepted the change from the Catholic Church to the Church of England without issue. The Act of Supremacy was repealed in 1555 during the reign of Mary I, but another Act of Supremacy was passed in 1559 under Elizabeth I. (Connor Haines)

Anabaptists:During the spread of Protestantism the Anabaptists were a group of religious reformers who diverged from Luther and Zwingli concerning their beliefs about when baptism should occur. The Anabaptists, contrary to the accepted belief that baptism should occur at birth, thought baptism should occur until the baptized is a mature adult.-CarolineBeuley

Anglican Church- The Anglican Church is the church founded by Charles VIII as a means to divorce his current wife, Catherine of Aragon, for his mistress, Anne Boleyn. There are really only two distinctions between the original Anglican church and the Roman Catholic church, those being that the Archbishop of Canterbury is the leader of the Anglican Church instead of the Pope and divorce is allowed. Creation of this allowed for the dissolution of the monasaries of England, and the sale of these lands to wealthy nobles, allying them to Henry and the Anglican faith. (Matt Borin)

Aquinas, Thomas (scholasticism) : Scholasticism is a philosophical method of reasoning that reconciled reasoning and observations in the physical world with one's faith. A Dominican scholar, Thomas Aquinas was the leading scholastic thinker in his time (c. 1225-1274) and wrote a great number of Scholastic works, including The Summa Theologica. In this work, Aquinas attempted to synthesize faith and reason, arguing that while sensory information can grant us great knowledge of the world around us, and the natural laws governed much of the lives of humans, understanding of God and the Trinity can only be obtained through faith, which ultimately trumps reason. -DavisHeniford

Babylonian Captivity (Papacy in Avignon) : After the previous pope had been embarrassed by the French crown, the French were able to strongly influence the selection of the pope, and thus, a French pope was elected for the first time in 1305. After four years, this pope, Clement V, moved the papacy to Avignon, a French city in language and culture, if not territorially. Political unrest around Rome prevented the return of the pope until 1377, but by this time the reputation of the pope had already been hurt, despite effective administration. -DavisHeniford

Brethren of the Common Life
(Thomas a Kempis)
Calvin, John- Calvin was an important leader during the Reformation next to Martin Luther. He ideas influenced the most people in Geneva, Switzerland. Calvin's main ideas of reform were in part to reform the overall structure of the church from the up. He also added much intellectual insight into his reforms with the Lutheran theology. Some of key points in his book, "Institutes of the Christian Religion" consisted of predestination and a christian theocracy. Calvin insisted that individuals possessed no free will and were condemned to heaven or hell even before birth. (Lauren Burton)

Catholic Reformation (Counter Reformation): New Pope Paul III was elected in 1534, and he made it his top priority to restore the atmosphere of pure spirituality in the papacy. With the emergence of Lutherism the Catholic Church was losing many previously devout members. The Council of Trent got the Church back on track by sorting out theological issues. Political motivation was involved as well, but the firm beliefs of the Church were reestablished by 1563. St. Ignatius started a movement that was strictly obedient to the Catholic Church, helping to regain support. In addition the popes following Paul III carried out his vision by restoring credibility to the papacy. (Robert Jessell)

Charles V Charles V was the emperor of the Holy Roman Empire from 1500-1558. As a devout catholic, Charles believed that the ideas of Martin Luther posed a threat to the Catholic church. He is most known for initiating two large meetings, one being the Diet of Worms. The Diet of Worms was held in 1521 as an attempt by Charles to crush Martin Luther.The Diet of Worms is ultimately a failure for Charles V. Once again after the protestant nobles formed formed a military alliance called the Scmalkdic League against the Hapsburgs, Charles is forced to come to agreement with the rebels signing the Peace of Augsburg. Charles V abdicated after the Peace of Augsburg because he could not bare to see his empire choosing a religion other than Catholicism. (Lauren Burton)
consubstantiation v. transubstantiation - Catholics believe in transubstantiation, which means that the bread and wine at communion are miraculously transformed by the priest into Jesus's actual body and blood. Protestants believe in consubstantiation, which means that no miracle occurs and the bread and wine merely symbolize Jesus's body and blood. This change was one of several simplifications of mass that Luther encouraged: others include eliminating Latin, elaborate processions, and incense in the services. (Jane Wester)
Council of Trent- The Council of Trent was held in 1536 and served as a meeting to create new energy in the Catholic church and turn the church away from its corrupt ways of the past. The council played a huge role in creating a fresh start for the Catholic church and served as a strike back at the reforms being made by the Protestants. The church begins to reform internally after the successful council. (Lauren Burton)
cuius regio, eius religio - Latin for "whose the region, his the religion" - Charles V was winning battles against the Protestant Schmalkaldic League, but he couldn't win the war, which had begun in 1546 (he had too many other commitments, like wars against the French and the Turks). So in 1555 at the Diet of Augsburg, Charles V allowed "cuius regio, eius religio," a major concession, in the Peace of Augsburg. This meant that the religion of each individual territory was up to its individual prince, and if subjects were of the other faith (Lutheran or Catholic), they could leave. This meant the end of religious uniformity, a major loss for Charles V and a major gain for Lutheranism. (Jane Wester)
Diet of Worms: When Luther was excommunicated by Pope Leo X, he was called by Emperor Charles V in 1521 to defend himself at the Diet of Worms. At the Diet he said, “I cannot and will not recant anything.” The emperor responded, “A single friar who goes counter to all Christianity for a thousand years must be wrong.” This really demonstrates how the emperor was still stuck in a very medieval mindset that because a belief was established or traditional it must be correct, but Luther embodied the Renaissance mindset of individual conviction.-Caroline Beuley
Dissolution of the Monasteries- Henry VIII declared the Church of England independent of the Church of Rome, and created the Anglican Church (1534). This allows The government (Henry) to dissolve all Catholic monasteries in England and acquire all their property, which was substantial, due to the practice of donating some of a landowners estate to a monastery after his death, ensuring prayers for his soul perpetually. He then sold the lands to rich nobles and merchants, effectively tying their loyalty to the Anglican Church. (Matt Borin)
(Henry VIII)
Elizabeth I - (1533-1603) the unwanted daughter of Henry VIII and Anne Boleyn, Elizabeth I eventually became queen of England after her sickly brother Edward VI and her half-sister Mary died. Under her rule, she cemented Protestantism as the official religion of the English Church. (Carter Wiles)

Frederick the Wise, Duke of Saxony - Frederick was one of the seven electors of the Holy Roman Empire. Although he remained a Catholic, he supported Martin Luther for political reasons to undermine the Holy Roman Emperor, Charles V. He was responsible for Luther's kidnapping after the Diet of Worms and protected him for the next several years (or one year, according to Chambers?), during which time Luther lived in Frederick's Wartburg Castle and translated the New Testament into German. (Jane Wester)

Great Schism : After 70 years in Avignon (1377), Pope Gregory XI returned the the papacy to Rome, but died shortly after doing so. The Roman people, who desperately wanted the papacy (and the money and prestige) to return to Rome, pushed strongly for the election of a Roman pope, Urban VI. However, it was not long before the French cardinals became dissatisfied with this appointment, nullified the election, and elected an entirely different pope who soon returned the papacy to Avignon. Thus, the Great Schism (1378-1417) began, with the crowns of Europe rapidly aligning themselves with either pope. The Council of Pisa attempted to resolve the issue by deposing the feuding popes and electing another. However, this added a third potential pope, as the others refused to back down. The Council of Constance finally ended the Great Schism by getting rid of all three of the popes and electing a new one, Martin V. While the Council also created a general council that would hold supreme power in the Church (conciliatory movement), it proved ineffective at reform, and true power returned to the pope in the Church. To revive the papacy, popes embraced Renaissance art. -DavisHeniford

Johan Gutenberg - Living on the Rhine River in the city of Mainz, he invitented the Printing Press in the pivotal year of 1453. Although the invention of the Printing Press did not boost literacy rates, it had a profound impact on society as a whole. With 9 million books printed by 1500, ideas spread into the North as well as translations of the Bible were put into a more vernacular lanuage. Because the Bible was placed in more hands, it became a powerful weapon used to demonstrate the corruption/greediness of the Church. Thus, the Church attempted to limit the number of Printing Presses and governments sought to restrict their locations, but Gutenberg's invention helped dissolve the Church's control and encourage temper toward elected Church officials. - Ellie Sheild

*Huguenots*- A name given to French protestants of the time, mainly followers of the teachings of John Calvin and Martin Luther. The Huguenots came into direct conflict with Catholicism and the French King, and an edeict in 1536 urged their extermination. (Carter Wiles)

Ignatius Loyola- Ignacious Loyola (1491-1556) was a dedicated reformer that wished to reform the corruption of the Catholic church from the inside out. In his famous book called "Spiritual Exercises" he compiled all of his ideas and visions from God into one book that expressed his purpose to revive the Catholic church. Loyola obtained many followers of whom have obtained the name "Jesuits" or the "Society of Jesus". (Lauren Burton)

Indulgences- The practice of Indulgences is the belief in the Catholic Church that through certain earthly deeds, or a form of penance performed on earth, you can lesson the amount of time you are required to spend in Purgatory, which is the "waiting room" for Heaven, where your Venial sins are cleansed before you go to Heaven. The Catholic belief is that Purgatory is a very painful place to be, and one of the only things that differentiates it from Hell is the fact that you are not totally alienated from God, as you are in Hell. Obviously it is not a place that you would want to spend your free time, and for this reason Catholics have great incentive to acquire Indulgences. The actual exchange of money for Indulgences was started by Julius II in order to raise funds for the Papacy, and the tradition continued after that. The claims grew so outrageous that Johann Tetzel, the Indulgence seller who broke Martin Luther's last straw, was selling complete amnesty from past and future sins, basically a get out of Purgatory free card. The selling of Indulgences goes hand in hand with the selling of Church authorized Dispensations and the selling of Church offices, or simony. The sale of Indulgences was one point of major dissatisfaction that many people felt with the Church, and in fact most of Luther's 95 Thesis were on the topic of Indulgences. (Matt Borin)

Knox, John: A disciple of John Calvin who helped to spread Calvinism throughout Scotland. In addition to Knox's work, Calvinism spread through the political advantage a protestant religion offered in that it freed nobles and monarchs from having to obey the clergy and the pope.-David Farrow

Lollards : Followers of John Wycliffe (c. 1320-1384), the Lollards believed that the organization and bureaucracy of the Church had become too complicated, and had separated the Church at large from the ordinary people. They criticized the vices of Church officials, wanted to lessen the power of the pope, questioned transubstantiation, and declared that the God's will could only be found through the Bible, and thus demanded wider use of scripture by the people (rather than the Bible being only translated in Latin). The Lollards were deemed heretical (for obvious reasons…) and survived in secret until the Protestant Reformation later spread. -DavisHeniford

Luther, Martin:Luther lived from 1483 to 1546, spending most of his life in Saxony, Germany. He is known as the father of Lutheranism and perhaps more importantly as the inciter of Europe’s religious reformation. He entered a monastery shortly after being struck by lightning. His faith was of such gravity to him that he practiced flagellation in a hope to earn worthiness from God. After a stint at a monastery, he began working on the faculty of a university in Wittenberg, Germany. Here, he realized that God will punish him for his sins regardless of what he does, but that the removal of his sins relies on his faithfulness, and with faithfulness will come God's mercy. Luther greatly disapproved the church’s selling of indulgences, so he was completely outraged by the selling of future indulgences by Dominican monk, Johann Tetzel, who was raising funds for St. Peter’s Church in Rome. In response, Luther nailed his 95 Theses, or grievances, to the door of a church in Wittenberg on October 30, 1517. At first, Luther’s theses were not indicative of his wish to break from the church; they were more a desperate plea that the church end all abuses, one of many being the selling of indulgences. But tensions as tensions rose between the Dominican order and Luther’s Augustinian order, Luther began to directly challenge the church’s authority. In 1520 Luther was excommunicated by Pope Leo X, and a year later Charles V, the Holy Roman Emperor, called the Diet of Worms in which Luther is called to recant. At the Diet, Luther famously declares: “I cannot and will not recant anything, since it is unsafe and wrong to go against my conscience. Here I stand. I cannot do otherwise. God help me. Amen”. As a result, Charles V called for Luther’s arrest, but Frederick III, one of seven electors in the Holy Roman Empire, staged Luther's kidnapping and offered him protection in his castle at Wartburg. At Wartburg, Luther composed the Augsburg Confession, essentially the outline of Lutheranism, alongside Philipp Melanchthon. In it, he asserts, firstly that faith alone, not sacraments or good works, wins redemption, and secondly that the Bible is the sole source of religious authority. These beliefs were very different in comparison to those of the Roman Church which had always put great emphasis on the role of priests and bishops who acted as mediators between God and the believer. Luther’s ideals gained favor among the people of Germany because he believed that faith should be personal and so, he encouraged his followers of Christ to read the Bible for themselves. The only problem being that the Bible was printed in Latin, which very few were fluent in. Thus, Luther completely translated the Bible into German by 1534. He championed the idea of a priesthood of all believers, in which all God-fearing people were equal; an idea counter to that of the Roman Church, which gave priests and bishops significant power and disallowed laypeople from sharing the wafer and wine during the Eucharist. Luther’s church refused the use of Latin, and rejected all sacraments except for baptism and the Eucharist, which he renamed “communion”. Ultimately, the emergence of Luther awakened all Europeans to the fact that the church can be defeated in the name of reform; a belief that wouldn’t have been recognized before the Renaissance; however, it is important to keep in mind, firstly that Luther's purpose was not to encourage religious freedom; Luther persecuted those who went against his teachings; and secondly that religious freedom wasn't an outcome of the spread of Lutheranism. -Tahira Benjamin

More, Thomas - Later achieveing Sainthood, Sir Thomas More (1478-1535) was a prominant figure in English Humanism by believing that the ideal world stems from Christian Humanist ideals. This emphasized the return of Christian learning while still noting the major problems with in the Church itself. His short work, Utopia, depicted an ideal society and helped spread More's reputation when it was published in 1516. Utopia described a world that placed morality above all and showed More's intolerance for evil, such as poverty and war. By believing that society could reinstall morality via disciplined education, he sought to be a member of Parliament in 1504. But, he was later beheaded by King Henry VIII for rejecting the King's decision to shun papal authority. - Ellie Sheild

Peace of Augsburg- Charles V declared the Peace of Augsburg in 1555, which ended the fighting between the Lutherans and Charles V (Catholicism in HRE). This recognized the ability for each Prince of a territory to decide his own religion, "Cuius regio, eius religio." or "Whose the region, his the religion.", which would then be the religion of that territory. However, the only religions allowed were Catholicism and Lutheranism. Charles abdicated after this, thinking it his greatest failure, and stayed in a monastary till his death. His territory is dissolved into two parts, the HRE acquired by his unimportant brother, maybe called Ferdinand, and the rest he gave to his son, Philip II. (Matt Borin)

Peasant’s Revolt (German) - in 1524, a Peasant's Rebellion started up in Germany, led by people who were taking after Luther's rise up against authority and taking matters into their own hands by slaughtering all the nobles they could find. Luther, however, condemned this uprising and wrote a book titled "Against the Rapacious and Murdering Peasants" saying that they were taking it too far and not hardly considering his religious ideals, because despite all his reforms, he was a pretty conservative dude. Also, he felt that he must condemn the revolt to keep his religion's foothold in the nobility so that it could spread and also so he could maintain his safety. (Carter Wiles)

predestination: Predestination was the radical new belief that challenged the Catholic belief of achieving salvation through good works. Predestination was the idea that a person’s eternal destiny is predestined by God, and that while one can do nothing to change their eternal destiny, one should act as one who expects that she is destined for heaven. There were two different concepts of predestination. Luther, for example, believed that a believer could be predestined to go to heaven, but not to hell. However, Calvin, and all Calvinists for that matter, believed that predestination meant that, from birth, a person’s eternal destination was decided, whether it be to heaven or hell. This emphasized human helplessness before God’s mighty justice.-Caroline Beuley

“Priesthood of All Believers”:A belief of Martin Luther, who breaks from the Roman Church in 1520. After his departure, he emphasized the “priesthood of all believers”, in response to the pervasiveness of the Catholic church’s hierarchy. His ideal emphasizes the equality of all believers, as opposed to the church’s differentiation between clergy and laity. The best example of this exclusiveness is the Eucharist, as laypeople were not allowed to share both the wine and the wafer, while the bishops and priests indulged in both. In contrast, Luther renamed the Eucharist, “communion”, and insisted that all of the faithful, both clergy and laity, share the wine and the wafer, thus greatly reducing the power and importance of bishops and priests. -Tahira Benjamin

Society of Jesus (Jesuits): The Society of Jesus, or the Jesuits, was founded by Ignatius Loyola. Spending 30 years of his life as a military man/knight, after a pilgrimage to Jerusalem and a subsequent outbreak of Jerusalem syndrome, Loyola found himself being called by good to create a new religious order to reform the Catholic Church. This vision would become the basis for his book Spiritual Exercises. The book served as the foundation for Jesuits in asserting that discipline and hard work is necessary for a truly pious life, with this assertion building to the thought that hard work, in combination with faith, will allow for the achievement of grace. Loyola, after having been a mendicant preacher for years and having gained a following, was recognized as an official religious order by the Pope Paul III in 1537. The order promoted four key activities "preaching, hearing confessions, teaching, and missionary work", although they are most well-known for teaching. Jesuit schools popped up all over Europe presenting opportunities to learn, even for no-Catholic families (although students would probably convert by the end). In addition to brain, the Jesuits had brawn through acting as a military force within the Catholic church, fighting agains the spread of Protestantism.-David Farrow

Theocracy:A form of government in which the laws of the land coincide with or are derived from religious beliefs of some God or Gods. An early example of this kind of government came in the form of the Zurich-based, Zwingli’s, who believed in the supervision of all moral issues in order to gain the favor of God. Like any other theocracy, they enlisted a panel of religious figures and secular figures to discipline their followers. -Tahira Benjamin

Weber, Max (1864-1920): A twentieth century sociologist who argued that religion proved integral in defining communal values and in the formation of governmental and economic structure as, only through the common values, would individuals willingly participate in these exchanges. Thus, Weber theorized, the Protestant breakaway proved so earth shattering as it representing a break from these communal norms, and, as such, there was no clear path for how social, political, economic, and religious interactions would occur.-David Farrow
Zwingli, Ulrich: Ulrich Zwingli was a Swiss reformer and disciple of Erasmus. Like Luther before him, he wished to strip the church of pageantry and to make religious relationships solely between God and the Individual. With this goal in mind, he surpassed Luther in radicalism through renouncing all sacraments, believing things like Baptism and Communion to hold no real value beyond ritual. Although stressing the individual relationship with God, Zwingli was a proponent of increased oversight over the individual's life to mandate church attendance and prayer, with the logical conclusion of mandated religion being theocracy. Zwingli's beliefs never really gained as much attention as Luther or Calvin, but does still hold some influence over future protestants. -David Farrow

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