Late 19th Century 7th Period

Late 19th Century Key Terms

Dreyfus Affair - The Dreyfus Affair took place in 1894. Someone in the French military was sending secrets to Germans, which was an extra sting of humiliation because of the already-tense relationship between Germany and France. The handwriting on discovered messages matched that of Alfred Dreyfus, a Jewish Alsacian. He was found guilty of treason and exiled to Devil’s Island. In 1896, new evidence emerged that seemed to prove his innocence…the government immediately went into “cover-up mode”. Emile Zola wrote an article called “J’accuse”, accusing everyone he thought to be part of the cover-up. The country split into Dreyfusards and anti-Dreyfusards. Zola was arrested for libel and Dreyfus found guilty again in 1899 despite clear evidence that he was innocent. He was later pardoned by the president and in 1906 completely exonerated. This whole affair revealed the anti-Semitism of the era, how nationalism could be spun in a negative way, Revanchism, and the Monarchists finally were politically irrelevant. - Leora

Edward Bernstein Edouard Bernstein: He was one of the proponents of the concept of evolutionary socialism. He believed Marx was correct about the proletariat taking over and accurately analyzed the capitalistic system, but he disagreed with the idea of an inevitable revolution; he believed that if we worked within the system to make life better, someday it would happen. In addition, he advocated for democracy and the people should have to work gradually for political and economic rights. —Connie

Count Cavour Count Camillo di Cavour (1810-1861) was a talented diplomat from Piedmont Sardinia who helped unify Italy. He became the Prime Minister in Piedmont Sardinia for King Emmanuel II and instituted liberal reforms. He believed in religious tolerance and the rule of law and supported economic and scientific progress with laissez-faire policies. In addition to strengthening Piedmont Sardinia, Cavour wanted his state to lead the unification process. He pushed for Piedmont’s participation in the Crimean War and was rewarded with discussion of the Italian question at the Congress of Paris. When Giuseppe Garibaldi began directing his volunteer army toward Rome, Cavour orchestrated a meeting between King Emmanuel and Garibaldi outside of Rome and avoided a violent conflict that could have disrupted Italian Unification. -Grace

Giuseppe Garibaldi - Garibaldi, the “Italian George Washington” is the biggest hero of the Italian Unification. In 1859 he raised an army known as the “Red Shirts,” which once big enough, was able to conquer the Kingdom of 2 Sicilies. He then agreed to step aside and give the Italian Kingdom to Victor Emmanuel. This reluctance to take power mirrored George Washington, which explains his nickname – Erin

realpolitik - someone who takes a ruthlessly opportunistic approach to statesmanship. Someone like Otto Von Bismarck, who cares only about what is good for his country. – Erin

Realpolitik focuses not on ethics or morals of a governments actions, but only on the benefit of the country. A realpolitik leader is usually fiercely nationalistic and uses military power often. Bismarck was a realpolitik ruler. - Hayes

Otto von Bismarck- As Erin said, Otto Von Bismarck was the epitome of a realpolitik. He was thus nicknamed the "Iron Chancellor" of Prussia, because he believed that war and industrialization would solve the issue of unification, as opposed to the liberal approach of using speeches to rally the Germanic countries behind the unification effort. His ruthless approach to unification was apparent in the Austro-Prussian war as well as the Franco-Prussian war, in which he provoked conflicts for his country's benefit. -Alexis

Austro-Prussian War- supposedly begun over a conflict about Schleiswig-Holstein, Prussia proked a war with Austria for the purpose of determining the dominant power in German Unification. Prussia defeated Austria, but let them off easy, so that they would have a strong ally to support unification. Following the war, the Northern German states ally with Prussia for the unification effort. -Alexis

Bismarck was well aware that to be a dominant central European power, he had to prove the military power of Prussia, and form more national pride to aid with unification. The war started over a pseudo-argument over territory. Prussia crushed austria in a matter of weeks. Instead of forcing reparations like France, Bismarck left Austria nearly intact, and preserved a future alliance. This helped them prepare for a second war against France, which would also be won handily. - Hayes

Franco-Prussian War- After the events of the Ems Dispatch unfolded, France felt their honor had been insulted, so the French declared war on Prussia. The common enemy of France united the Germanic peoples, and they came together with military prowess and destroyed the French forces in a matter of weeks. However, Paris hung on, and thus the Prussians began the Siege of Paris, lasting 4 months. The Prussians would not let any food or supplies into the city, and Parisians began to starve. The war finally ended with a Treaty of Versailles, which was especially insulting to the French. The treaty that officially created Germany and which crowned the German Kaiser was held in their Hall of Mirrors. German unification was what the French had feared all along, and now it was officially happening on their own turf. The Prussians also seized Alsace and Lorraine and forced the French to pay 5 billion francs in reparations. ~Ashley

Baron von Haussmann - Baron von Haussmann was the man who redesigned most of the structure of Paris and turned it into the modern city that it is today. During the late 1850s and 1860s he destroyed 19,722 homes in the slums of Paris to rebuild 43,777 new ones, almost all of which were improved and more expensive. By 1870, sixty percent of homes and streets in Paris had been planned and constructed by von Haussmann. He created wide new boulevards which eliminated the threat of barricaded revolts. He created a new sewer system and a new aqueduct. Lots of shops began to spring up in his new streets, and Paris began to look like what it does today. ~Ashley

kulturkampf- of "struggle for civilization" was Otto Von Bismarck's crack down on Catholicism in the newly unified Germany. He believed that Catholicism was a hindrance to the progress of the German state, so he sought to reign it in with laws against Catholic marriage and education and by expelling the Jesuits. This plan ultimately failed, as 35% of the population was Catholic. -Alexis

Bismarck was conservative in his leadership of the new German Empire. To fight against Catholics, liberals, and expression of speech against him, he enacted a series of laws that either severely limited catholic teaching and publicity, or kicked out sects like the Jesuits. He wanted the Germans to be uniform in belief, and thought Catholics were inspiring counter-cultural ideas. - Hayes

Ausgleich- The Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867. Created the dual Austro-Hungarian monarchy. Established sovereignty of Hungary, as a country separate from the Austrian empire. The Austrian region and Hungarian region both had their own heads of state and parliaments, but they remained united by a single head of state of both territories. kristen.

Social Darwinism - Social Darwinism is a theory that parallels that of Darwin’s theory of natural selection and survival of the fittest. Only the strongest and best at something survive and live to reproduce, thus certain dominant traits are passed down through generations. The theory was applied to social interactions, and specifically to women saying that women have developed for biological roles not to advance in economic or political roles. ~Ashley

Social Darwinism was a perversion of Darwin's theory of natural selection of animals in the wild. Social Darwinism claimed that the best rise to the top of society, and the worst are the poorest. This theory was used to justify hostile business takeovers and other such actions because people wanted to be the best of the best, and would stop at nothing to get there. -SamS

Crimean War The Crimean War was a conflict between Russia and the alliance of Great Britain, France, the Ottoman Empire, and the Kingdom of Sardinia over territories of the declining Ottoman Empire. Most of the conflict took place on the Crimean peninsula, but there were smaller campaigns in western Anatolia, Caucasus, the Baltic Sea, the Pacific Ocean and the White Sea. This war is sometimes considered one of the first modern wars as it introduced technical changes which affected the future course of warfare, including the first tactical use of railways and the electric telegraph. It is also famous for the work of Florence Nightingale and Mary Seacole, who pioneered modern nursing practices while caring for wounded British soldiers. The Crimean War was also one of the first wars to be documented extensively in written reports and photographs as news from war correspondents could reach Great Britain from the Crimea, keeping the public informed of the day-to-day realities of the battlefield for the first time. -Chuka

The First International The International Workingmen's Association or International Workers' Association (1864–1876), often called the First International, was an international organization which aimed at uniting a variety of different left-wing socialist, communist and anarchist political groups and trade union organizations that were based on the working class and class struggle. It was founded in 1864 in a workmen's meeting held in Saint Martin's Hall, London. Its first congress was held in 1866 in Geneva. This coalition of unions and movements was dominated by Karl Marx and Mikhail Bakunin voiced this opinion and was kicked out in 1872. - Chuka

Mikhail Bakunin Michael Bakunin was a Russian anarchist who was a member of First International, a workingmen’s association that later became a socialist group dominated by Karl Marx. Because of their political differences, Marx and Bakunin never got along, and Bakunin was ousted from the group in 1872. Although Bakunin and other anarchists never organized a cohesive party, their ideas and random acts of violence caused great fear and anxiety in Europe. -Grace

anarchism Anarchists were against and planned to destroy any organization that limited individual freedom such as political states, the church, and other major institutions. These anarchists believed that man was inherently good and that violence was necessary to achieve their goals. Although they weren’t very organized they still had a few assassination attempts that proved successful. For example Tsar Alexander II of Russia, the President of France, the Prime Minister of Spain, the Empress of Austria, the King of Italy, and President McKinley of the United States. - Chuka

Georges Sorel Georges Sorel was a philosopher from France who disagreed with Marx’s idea that history was determined by economic conflict and his prediction that a violent revolution was inevitable. In his book, Reflections on Violence, he argued that historic changes occur when people are inspired by some great myth beyond the test of reason. He proposed a general strike and wanted to organize the world into unions. Instead of waiting for what Marx promised to be inevitable, Sorel urged the proletariat to organize a violent revolution as soon as possible. -Grace

syndicalism The syndicalist movement was initiated by Georges Sorel and called for workers’ organizations, or syndicats, to overthrow the bourgeois with a General Strike. Discontent with Marx’s lack of a concrete plan, Sorel and the sydicalists attempted to organize the world into unions and start a violent revolution. -Grace

Paris Commune- The brief socialist government established in France following the siege of Paris and the fall of the 2nd Empire. Though it didn't last long, it was a triumph for radicals across Europe because the socialist system could indeed survive, at least for a little while. -Alexis

The Paris Commune was a temporary socialist government in France largely the result of the defeat during the Franco-Prussian War of 1870. The Commune lasted from March 1871-May 1871. It is considered by the first assumption of power of the working class prior to the split between this faction into Marxists and anarchists., The Paris Commune was only really a city council of sorts for the city of Paris during the spring of 1871 and was ultimately crushed by Adolphe Theirs in another Paris bloodbath. -Becca

Benjamin Disraeli - Benjamin Disraeli was a prominent conservative British politician from the 1840s to the beginning of the 1880s and served as prime minister twice. As one of the prominent leaders of the Conservative Party, he had an intense rivalry with William Gladstone, a powerful head of the Liberal Party at the same time. He also benefitted from a close alliance with Queen Victoria, and was made an earl in 1876. -DavisHeniford

William Gladstone - William Gladstone was a British politician who served in Parliament for over sixty years (from the 1830s to the 1890s) and served as Prime Minister four times. He was a leading figure in the Liberal party, and a fierce rivalry developed between him and Benjamin Disraeli. He supported secret ballots, voting reforms, and more independence for Ireland. He also had a poor relationship with Queen Victoria. -DavisHeniford

Suffragettes-members of the women's suffrage movement in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, particularly in Great Britain and the USA.kristen.

Led by Pankhurst, British women formed the first major womens suffrage movement. They did not win their rights until 1918, and full suffrage in 1928, but their tenacity and outspoken actions inspired many other countries people to fight for their respective voting rights. - Hayes

Syllabus of Errors - In 1864, Pope Pius IX released the “Syllabus of Errors,” a list of everything modern that he hated. By releasing this syllabus, the Pope and the Catholics in general were declaring themselves anti-progress and irrelevant in the modern world - Erin

The Syllabus of Errors was a list of everything the Pope disliked, and consisted of many inventions that would soon be commonplace. It was quickly followed by the 1870 Declaration of Papal Infallibility which, because it was slightly misunderstood, only added to the feeling that the Church had no place in the modern world. These two mistakes were changed in 1878 by Pope Leo XIII who said that the Catholic Church has to be a part of the modern world. -SamS

Rerum Novarum - – in response to the previous anti-progress, anti-modern mindset of the Catholic church, Pope Leo XIII, the first modern pope released “Rerum Novarum: stating that the Catholic Church must be a part of the modern world. He understood that there are aspects of the “new” world that the Catholics could not agree with, but they could not afford to be left behind. – Erin

psychoanalysis —Psychoanalysis was a (pseudo)science developed by Sigmund Freud as a way to learn more about the working of the human mind and to treat psychoses. He believed that the origin of psychosis was repression of innate urges of the "unconscious" mind (the absent yet active part of the human psyche), namely sexual desires. These theories not only scandalized polite society with his encouragement of frank discussion of things like sex, but also catalyzed a crisis of reason because there was now supposedly more to the human mind than we ourselves can consciously recognize. —Connie

Sigmund Freud - Sigmund Freud was a Jewish Austrian psychologist who created the new science of psychoanalysis. His work prompted a question in the Belle Epoch’s common mind – are we actually rational? Freud proposed that the unconscious determines how we act, that the rational part of who we are is just the tip of the iceberg of our actual identities. “The ego is not the master of its own house”. He began diagnosing psychosis and concluded that psychosis was the result of the suppressing of urges, especially sexual. He was one of the first people to talk openly about sex, which really rattled people, and proposed the “talking cure” in handling those with psychosis. This “cure” is now what most of us think of when we think of psychologists and therapists – talk about and acknowledge traumatic events and the psychosis will go away. He flaunted his violation of society’s taboos, particularly society’s fear of sexuality. - Leora

Jack the Ripper “Jack the Ripper” also commonly known as “The Whitechapel Murderer” or “Leather Apron” is the popular name given to a serial killer who killed a number of prostitutes in the East End of London in 1888. The name originates from a letter written by someone who claimed to be the killer published around the time of the gruesome murders. The killings took place within a mile radius of the districts of Whitechapel, Spitafields, Aldgate, and the City of London. “Jack” would leave his mutilated victims in plain sight for the press to take notice and manipulate the story with myths into one that terrified the city of London and the world. The press coverage influence turned this killer into one of the most romantic figures in history. -Chuka

Jack the Ripper was the first modern serial killer because of the publicity his murders received. It was on the cover of every major newspaper in London, and created a pandaemonium there. He cut his victims precisely, leading some to believe he was a surgeon. His identity was never discovered, which added to the awe and mystery that surrounded the character the media advertised. -SamS

Soren Kierkegaard- He was a Danish philosopher who is considered to be the first existentialist, who analyzed the existence of the individual in an uncertain world who could not know for certain what was right and what was wrong. He also wrote many critiques about Christianity, morality, and ethics. -SamS

Kierkegaard was known for his biting criticism of organized religion, especially Christianity. His writing explored the idea of “Truth as Subjectivity” in an overall investigation of the affect of emotions on an individual when faced with life decisions. In general, Kierkegaard disagreed with the idea of a state religion and even further, the influence of faith and passion in any human action. On of his most famous quotes sums up his existential philosophy: “Science and scholarship want to teach that becoming objective is the way. Christianity teaches that the way is to become subjective, to become a subject.” -Becca

Albert Einstein- Einstein was a Swiss patent clerk who became the father of modern physics. In 1905 he pulished the Special Theory of Relativity, which said that time is relative, not absolute. Time moves slower in space. This rocked the scientific world and the culture in general because it suggested that the world was more complicated than we had previously thought and that scientific “rules” were not, in fact, absolute. He also founded quantum theory. - Leora

Einstein’s Theory of Relativity essentially introduced time as not a constant, but as a flexible fourth dimension. The first three dimensions of the universe essentially define position of objects. Though inanimate objects seem to stay in fixed positions, their distance from you is relative to where you are standing. For example, if you were sitting at your desk and wanted to graph the coordinates of the things around you on a 3-dimensional graph with yourself being the origin (for example, you are currently (0,0,0) and a chair near you is (1,1,-2)), the coordinates of the object would change if you were standing somewhere else, and the origin was still yourself. Time, like position of objects, is relative in the sense that if it takes 5 minutes for me to jump off the mast of a moving ship and hit the floor, that 5 minute time frame seems like it would not change, but if someone were standing in two different places watching the same action elapse over a given span of time, their perception of time would be different if they were on the ship witnessing me commit suicide, versus if they were on the shore. —Connie

Michael Faraday Michael Faraday was a British scientist known for his work with the electromagnetic properties of various materials, and discovered the concepts of mutual induction and diamagnetism. In addition, Faraday challenged the contemporary belief that there were various types of electricity that had unique properties, instead proposing that there was only one type of electricity and its different manifestations were attributed to variation in voltage and currents. He is also known for his experiments with the Faraday cage, through which he discovered that the exterior charge of a conductor does not affect the charge of its contents. —Connie

Gregor Mendel Gregor Mendel, a friar who worked with the cultivation of pea plants, is widely known as the father of modern genetics. His discoveries led to Mendel's Law of Inheritance, namely the Law of Segregation (assuming that the individual is diploid, it has two alleles for each trait is expresses) and the Law of Independent Assortment (generally, different genes are passed on independently on each other), as well as the concepts of dominant and recessive traits and hybridization. This greatly demystified and clarified how traits are passed on in all organisms. —Connie

Charles Darwin - Charles Darwin was the scientist who made people doubt their religion even more during the late 19th century. When he was aboard his ship, the HMS Beagle, he traveled to the Galapagos Islands where he studied finches and made conclusions about evolution. In 1859 he published On the Origin of Species By Means of Natural Selection, a work that proposed the idea of natural selection and evolution. In 1871 he wrote The Descent of Man which was even more controversial, for it directly proposed that humans evolved. Darwin was such a controversial figure because his discoveries prompted a crisis of faith among people in the late 19th century – now there seemed to be scientific evidence that proved the Bible was wrong. How could people trust the Bible anymore? Darwin inadvertently pitted science against religion for the first time in a while. - Leora

On the Origin of Species - After careful observations and studies of finches in the Galapagos Island, Charles Darwin published a book, On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection. His original argument was not one of evolution but rather survival of the fittest. Nevertheless the 1859 publication of this work shook up audiences. Although his theories were not immediately accepted by the scientific community, they eventually caused a great crisis of faith. Darwin was giving scientific evidence that seemed to disprove the Bible and the creation story of Genesis. If the Bible was inaccurate, what else were people believing that wasn’t true? This new theory caused many people to call into question their beliefs, and shook up their certainty on everything. ~Ashley

Louis Pasteur-one of the founders of medial micro-biology. known for his advancements in understanding the causes and prevention of diseases. Supported germ theory. Make milk safe to drink (yay!). created the first vaccines for rabies and anthrax. kristen.

Louis Pasteur is probably most known for his work to prevent the spread of sicknesses through foods (specifically wine and milk) hence the word, pasteurization: the process of slowing the spoilage of foods. Pasteur proved the growth of microorganisms and subsequent grown of bacteria is not spontaneous but through a process called biogenesis. The Law of Biogenesis is accredited to Pasteur, concisely put “omne vivum ex vivo”, “all of life is from life”. -Becca

Salon de Refuses-exhibition of works that had been rejected by the Paris Academy of Art. It was begun by Manet in 1863 as a place for experimental artists to show their work and share their ideas. kristen

The Salon des Refuses was initially a reaction to rejection by the official Paris Salon of accepted French artists, but eventually these refuses became the home of an entire art movement, impressionism. Manet’s “The Luncheon on the Grass” is one of the more famous paintings ridiculed by the Paris Salon. The art of the Salon de Refuses was often too provocative, featuring nude forms, and too ‘blurry’ for the traditional, realistic art accepted by the Salon. The Salon de Refuses has become a symbol of this new movement not only in art, but throughout Western society in a move to the more modern world we live in today. -Becca