Late 19th Century 2nd Period
Nietzsche_1561170c.jpg

Late 19th Century Key Terms

Dreyfus Affair Known as the lowest moment of the 3rd republic in France, this scandal brought up several issues within France such as anti-Semitism, nationalism, revanchism (desire for revenge), and the weakening of the monarchists. This conflict originated in 1894 when a French spy was caught passing secrets to the Germans. Based on the handwriting of the letters, Alfred Dreyfus was immediately charged as a traitor, an easy target because he was Jewish, and found guilty in a quick trial. In 1896, new evidence emerged showing Dreyfus's innocence, but a cover up quickly ensued and the man who'd come up with this new evidence was exiled. In response to this, the country split. Dreyfusards (republicans, liberals, socialists) vs Anti-Dreyfusards (army, monarchists, catholics), and Emily Zola published her famous "J'Accuse" article which gained the support of the public on the topic. Finally in 1899 after another trial had found him guilty, Dreyfus was pardoned by the President and ultimately exonerated in 1906. (Mary)

Edward Bernstein- Edward Bernstein was an evolutionary socialist arguing that the revolution for socialism, that Marx spoke of, will happen eventually, but not in the near future. He fought for everything the other socialists fought for: unions, democracy, improved working conditions, etc. but he thought one must work from within the present system in order to get as far as they could with these changes until the revolution was imminent. The Social Democratic Party rejected his ideas and stuck with Karl Marx's. (Sarah Tomlin)

Count Cavour- (1810-1861), Prime Minister of Piedmont-Sardinia and leader of Italian unification. He worked for King Victor Emanuel II who's goal was to become the king of unified Italy. Cavour worked in alliance with the French during the Crimean which ended in a marriage that would cement their alliance for the future. Cavour also strategically provoked a war with Prussia in 1858. With the help of France they were able to defeat Austria and ultimately gain the territory of Lombardi furthering their attempt of Italian unification. (Mary)

Giuseppe Garibaldi - In 1859 he forms a small volunteer army called the Red Shirts which eventually grows significantly due to a desire for liberation from the conservative Kingdom of the two Sicilies. Garibaldi took over this Italian state and brought his army to Rome where he met with Emmanuel II where they decided to form the Kingdom of Italy and place Victor Emmanuel II as king. (Kavitha).

realpolitik - a ruthlessly opportunistic approach to statesmanship and foreign policy. Chancellor Otto von Bismarck used realpolitik to assert Prussia's dominance and ultimately unite Germany. (Mackenzie)

In addition, realpolitik is characterized by a pragmatic and realistic pursuit of goals that will benefit the strength of the state instead of fulfilling certain idealogical notions. This system of thinking and operating was similar to the ideas put forth by Machiavelli. (Shredder)

Otto von Bismarck - Bismarck took power in 1862 as the “Iron Chancellor” of Germany. A firm exponent of real politik, he believed that liberalism was overrated and instead embraced “Blood and Iron” (war and industrialization) as the means of leading the German unification effort. He was a practical statesman who knew how to play the political and military game in order to reach his end goal of German unification in January 1871. (Chuma)

Austro-Prussian War- 1866. Caused by Austria and Prussia's duel control and desire for the Schleswig- Holstein territory. Austrian was quickly crushed by the Prussians, but the Austrians didn't lose anything except for their power, prestige. Afterwards the Northern German states vote to join Prussia and the Austrian territory of Venetia voted to join Italy. (Mary)

Franco-Prussian War (1870) - This war was essentially manufactured by Bismarck by means of the Ems Dispatch, a telegraph “discovered” by the French press that revealed ostensible German insults to French honor. The reason? Bavaria was still holding out from united Germany, and Bismarck felt that all they needed was a common enemy. The French were crushed within weeks, leading to the collapse of the 2nd Republic. Yet the French refused to surrender, leading to the humiliating Siege of Paris which left the city (and French pride) in ruins. Thus in January 1871, fully united Germany is created. (Chuma)

In 1870 Otto von Bismarck manufactured a war between France and Prussia through the EMS Dispatch because of a lack of a Spanish heir. After Bismarck intercepts and edits a diplomatic telegram to the French, the French public began to demand war with Prussia. So in July France declared war but in a matter of weeks they were crushed and France’s 2nd empire collapsed after the siege of Paris. And in January 1871, they met at Versailles to sign the treaty in which Germany is created, Prussia takes Alsace & Lorraine and there was 5 billion franc reparations for Prussia. (Hannah)

Baron von Haussmann- (1809-1891) Georges-Eugène Haussman, aka “Baron von Haussman,” was the man in charge of the “Redesign of Paris” under the leadership of Napoleon III. The majority of Haussman’s work came during the late 1850s to the 1860s, and by 1870, 60% of the streets and buildings of Paris were created under the guidance of Haussman. In order to create a new, refurbished Paris, Haussman decided that the most important tasks would be the destruction of many of the slums of Paris, the widening of boulevards, an improved sewer system, and aqueducts. Haussman’s vision for the city of Paris has continued even to this day. [RickyG]

He redesigned Paris under Napoleon III in the late 1850s and 60s. By 1870 he had redesigned 60% of the streets and buildings in Paris focusing on the slums and creating wide boulevards instead of the narrow streets that once lined Paris. He also built a new sewer system and aqueduct. (Hannah)

kulturkampf- "Civilization Stuggle", published in 1873 discussing the anti catholic culture. Catholicism was seen as an internal weakness to Bismarck. Secular marriages were now recognized but this was a fail. (Mary)

Bismarck intended to appeal to the 61% of the population that was Protestant by subjugating the 38% of the population that was Catholic and made arrests in order to weaken the structure of the Catholic Church. His plan backfired as Catholics were motivated to organize themselves into a more potent political bloc. (Shredder)

Ausgleich was the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867. It established the dual monarchy of Austria-Hungary and re-established the independence of the Kingdom of Hungary, which was no longer subject to rule from the Austrian Empire. (Chuma)

Social Darwinism- a social use of the idea of survival of the fittest which believes that those who are wealthy and have succeeded are their because they are genetically/inherently better than those who do not. This was used as a justification for racial and class discrimination. (MDog)

Although Darwin himself did not support this perversion of his biological principles, it gained popularity and served as motivation for nasty things like eugenics and the racial and nationalistic pride of groups in Germany and elsewhere. Seen as something of a counterpart to the economic idea of laissez-faire capitalism. (Shredder)

Crimean War - This war began because of Russia’s desire to expand into the Ottoman Empire. France and Great Britain fought against them, and Piedmont-Sardinia became involved in order to form an alliance with France. This war was also significant because of Florence Nightingale’s contribution to the wounded soldiers. (Kavitha)

The First International - This was an organization started in 1864 by Karl Marx. It was dedicated to organizing the working man's movement. (Laura)

Mikhail Bakunin - Bakunin and Marx originally shared similar ideas and were both part of the First International organization. But in 1872 there was a break between Marx and Bakunin. While Marx moved toward the more socialism, Bakunin moved toward anarchism. Though Bakunin and the anarchists were never that organized, they still managed to scare the middle class (Laura)
-anarchism - Anarchists opposed all organizations, such as the State, the church, and major corporations, that limited the freedom of the individual. They sought to destroy these organizations, often violently, in order to establish a classless, stateless society. (Mackenzie)

Georges Sorel - Sorel wrote Reflections of Violence. Closely associated with the birth of syndicalism, he was an anti-capitalist who felt that direct revolutionary action against the capitalist economic system was needed. (Laura)
-syndicalism - was an anti-capitolist worker movement for a new economic system. The goal of which was to organize in syndicats, radical unions, and go on a general strike in order to defeat capitalism. (Laura)

Paris Commune- The Paris Commune was the socialist/communist government that was in control during the 4 month long Siege of Paris in the Franco-Prussian war. It didn't last for long as the 3rd Republic soon followed in January of 1871. (Sarah Tomlin)

Benjamin Disraeli
William Gladstone

Suffragettes - Group of women who were considered radical because they used violence and direct action to gain equal rights as men. They were led by Emmeline Pankhurst. One suffragette, Emily Davison, caused a tragic disturbance by throwing herself in front of a horse and getting trampled. This demonstrates the extreme measures many of these women took. (Kavitha)

Syllabus of Errors- The Syllabus of Errors was a list of all of the problems with modern society written in 1864 by Pope Pius IX. The Catholics traditionally have pride in tradition but in this new German State it gives Catholics a bad reputation because of their rejection of progress and modernism leaving them with a reputation of being irrelevant. (Sarah Tomlin)

Rerum Novarum- Rerum Novarum, written by Pope Leo XIII in 1878, was an encyclical written about the rejection of both extreme capitalism and extreme socialism. This began to change the attitude of Catholics towards Germany. (Sarah Tomlin)

psychoanalysis - Created by Freud in which the “unconscious” is the urges and wishes that you think are under control but really aren’t. Freud wrote Interpretation of Dreams in 1900 in which he explained the importance of dreams. He also defines psychosis, when you repress urges and desires and when you are not able to hold back these desires it causes mental diseases. (Hannah)

-Sigmund Freud was a Viennese Jew and 19th century philosopher who created a “Crisis of Reason” through his development of psychoanalysis, a new science. He challenged Victorian social conventions by asserting that sex is the driving force for everything, that the rational part of our minds plays a subservient role to the “unconscious”, and that psychosis (severe mental disorders) is caused by a repression of our natural urges and desires by the civilized society to which we subject ourselves. (Chuma)

Jack the Ripper - A serial killer who murdered several prostitutes in East London in 1888. Due to press coverage and the growing influence of the media (mainly newspapers), Jack the Ripper is considered to be the first "modern" serial killer. His murders and the reactions of the people in London reveal the increasing social tensions in England during the Victorian era. (Mackenzie)

Søren Kierkegaard- (1813-1855) Soren Kierkegaard was a Danish philosopher who was not part of the anticlerical movement of the time period. In fact, Kierkegaard held that religion provides a very strong and substantial base for ethics. However, Kierkegaard was very much opposed to the religious practices of the age. [RickyG]

He was considered the “Father of Existentialism” but also as a devoted Christian he attempted to bring the strength back to European Christianity. (Hannah)

Albert Einstein - Einstein contributed significantly to the field of science by publishing the Special Theory of Relativity, General Theory of Relativity, and the Quantum Theory. He made a radical claim in his Special Theory that there is no absolute time and that time in space is slower than it is on Earth. Unlike Newton, Einstein believed in probability over certainty. (Kavitha)

Michael Faraday- (1791-1867) Michael Faraday was an English scientist who made great advancements in the fields of electromagnetism and electrochemistry. However, Faraday is best known for the work he completed in the 1830s and 1840s, where he concluded that “lines of magnetic force are analogous to gravity and that magnetic fields induce electric currents, allowing for the creation of the electric generator” (704). [RickyG]

Gregor Mendel- a Catholic priest whose work with breeding flowers led to the foundation of the genetic theory. His two laws concerning how living thing pass on their traits to their offspring were important stepping stones to support Darwin's theory of evolution. (MDog)

Charles Darwin- a British scientist whose theory of evolution based on natural selection rocked the foundations of scientific and theologic ideas during the 19th century. Although not the first theory that proposed the origin of traits and species, it was the first that used natural selection and had what seemed to be observable evidence (i.e: Darwin's Finches) to back up its claims. (MDog)

On the Origin of Species- Written by Charles Darwin in 1859, this was one earth-shattering peace of literature. In this work, Darwin came to various conclusions that caused a great deal of anxiety for those who came into contact with this work. The first was that the variety of species in the world is potentially infinite, with perpetual modification of each species for survival. Additionally, Darwin discussed the idea of evolution, stating that only those that survived their environment via adaptation were able to reproduce (natural selection). This work became a centerpiece of controversy during the time period, clashing with the commonly held ideas on the origin of species. [RickyG]

Louis Pasteur- a french chemist who developed methods to "pasteaurize" milk and invented a means to treat rabies. His research led to the belief and advancement of using heat to kill germs and microbes. (MDog)

Not only did he pioneer the use of heat to kill microbes in milk and other food products, but Pasteur's work was essential in supporting the germ theory of disease. He convince most of Europe this idea about the spread of disease was accurate and was the founder of bacteriology. (Shredder)
Salon de Refuses -French for the “exhibition of rejects”, the Salon de Refuses was created by Eduard Manet when the French Academy rejected his painting “The Luncheon on the Grass.” Several art critics considered this painting to be scandalous, inappropriate, and ignorant of traditional Victorian social conventions. (Mackenzie)