Late 19th Century 1st Period

Late 19th Century Key Terms

Dreyfus Affair: Occuring during the Third Republic, this incident became France's stigma, revealing deeply rooted anti semitism and anti German feelings. In 1894 Captain Dreyfus of the French Army was accused of slipping French secrets to the Germans. With little transparency during the case besides biased and ugly press, one thing became very clear: the widening split between liberals and the conservatives. The liberals (socialists, anarchist, etc) sided with Dreyfus while the conservatives (Catholics, monarchists, etc) tried everything they could to incriminate the army official. With constant stalling and flip flopping, the result of the case only blurred the truth and scarred France's reputation. (Katiemayo)
Also Dreyfus, the accused, was a Jew from Alsace, which at the time was under the control of the Germans. His handwriting was “proven” to match the handwriting of the spy, he was quickly tried, and found guilty. However, in 1896 new evidence emerged that proved him innocent. It is in the reaction to this evidence that the extent of the anti-Semitism that existed everywhere, but especially in Germany, is revealed. Conservatives began a cover-up and Ester Hazy, the actual guilty one, was quickly tried and found innocent because he, unlike Dreyfus, was not a Jew. (Beuler)

Edward Bernstein: Bernstein’s ideas of evolutionary socialism were popular in Germany. He was a socialist, but believed that Karl Marx was wrong in the timing of his socialist theories. While we did believe in some of the fundamentals of Marx’s teachings, Bernstein’s main goal was to first achieve political and economic rights. Ultimately the Social Democratic Party rejected Berstein’s ideas. (Lauren Burton)

Count Cavour: Rising to the office of Prime Minister in 1852, Cavour was a liberal for his time, believing in religious tolerance and more expanded suffrage. Although he was a master of bold foreign policy (he gained the attention of Napoleon III), even Cavour dealt with disappointments, such as when France and Austria objected to Italian unification of the piedmont and other Italian states. Nevertheless, Cavour's statesmanship puts him at the top of the Italian nationalist movement. (Katiemayo)
In addition, while often the credit for Italian unification is attributed to Garibaldi and his army of red shirts, it is important to realize that Prime Minister Cavour was the real master mind behind Italian unification. His management of the Crimean war and manipulative provocation of the Austrian War set Italy up for success and only then did Garibaldi intervene. (Beuler)

Giuseppe Garibaldi: Italian nationalist associated with the country’s unification. There was popular support of his invasion of the Kingdom of Two Sicilies, one of the last city-states to join the Kingdom of Piedmont-Sardinia. After uniting the two he gave up his cause to King Victor Emmanuel and Camillo Cavour.—-TB
Founder of the volunteer army known as the Red Shirts, Garibaldi made several key invasions to help unify an Italy full of regional differences. He was actually sentenced to death earlier in his life but after fleeing to Mersailles, Italians were won over by his strength in battles. Services to the Piedmontese were ignored, but this did not spur Garibaldi's nationalism. Noble qualities are associated with Garibaldi due to his willingness to step down after earning power through conquering regions. (Robert Jessell)

realpolitik: A ruthlessly opportunistic approach to statesmanship touted by Bismarck the Iron Chancellor. The lack of moral boundary makes it a contrast to diplomacy. An example of realpolitik ideology was Bismarck’s saying, “blood and iron” meaning war and industrialization.

Realpolitik follows the realist tradition of thinking in that the politician prioritizes the welfare of the state over morality, communal good, or historic relations. In essence, realpolitik places all options on the table for the politicians, advocating the usage of any means necessary to achieve a goal. As such, realpolitik continues in the Machiavellian tradition of prioritizing the ends over the means to accomplish said ends.-David Farrow

Otto von Bismarck: (1815-1898) Chancellor of Prussia under King Wilhelm I associated with Prussian unification. Nicknamed the Iron Chancellor for his “gloves-off” approach to diplomacy, Bismarck accomplished Prussian unification by crafting two wars: first, the Austro-Prussian War in 1866 to determine which country (Prussia or Austria) should lead unification, followed by the Franco-Prussian War in 1870 which embarrassed the French, creating a rift between the two that would continue until WWI. —-TB

Bismarck’s skill as a politician and diplomat became obvious through his handling of his adversaries, both within and outside of Prussia. Bismarck, wanting a war with Austria, used a war with Denmark (in which Prussia and Austria were actually allies) to seize the territories Schleswig and Holstein jointly for Austria and Prussia. He knew this arrangement would cause tension and provoke a war. Similarly, with France, Bismarck wanted war to bring the southern Germans into his state, and his manipulation of the Ems Dispatch made the French declare war on him, playing right into his hands. Finally, in his war on socialism, Bismarck is able to subvert the socialist sentiment by adopting some of their programs, such as old-age pensions and welfare programs. A pragmatist, he pulled the rug out from under the socialists. -DavisHeniford

Austro-Prussian War: Lasting only 7 weeks in 1866, the war determined whether it would be Prussia or Austria leading unification. Prussia emerged the winner, showing that they were far more industrialized. Although the purpose of the war was not to claim territory, Prussia was given the region Schleswig-Holstein. —-TB

Franco-Prussian War: Between July 1870-May 1871, the German states got their revenge on Napoleon I when they completely destroyed French forces partly due to the manipulation of French press. Otto von Bismarck edited the Enes Dispatch to lure France into a war with Prussia. Also, the Spanish throne was given to a Prussian man, further provoking the French. Ultimately, the war ended up with the second Empire in France ending and the third republic beginning. (Robert Jessell)

Baron von Haussmann: While Napoleon III failed in his foreign policy attempts, Haussmann was at the center of Napoleon III's national success. Under Haussmann's watch, Paris was restructed and rebuilt, causing the number of jobs to increase but also forcing thousands of Parisians to leave their homes. The rebuilding of Paris was not just too prime it's appearance and add sewer and water systems, but also to prevent barricade building during times of rebellion with wider streets. (Katiemayo)

kulturkampf: Kulterkampf or “stuggle for civilization” was Otto von Bismarck’s political war against the Catholics in the newly created German state. Bismarck believed that Catholicism was detrimental to the modernity and ultimate progression of the German state. Through this kulterkampf in 1873, he expelled the Jesuits and only promoted secular marriages. (Lauren Burton)
It is also important to note that though many of Bismarck’s endeavors were successful this one was not. Few failed to recognize that it was merely a thinly veiled attempt to wage war on Catholics whose anti-change doctrine of tradition Bismarck believed would inhibit development and unification of Germany. (Beuler)

Ausgleich - This was the Austro-Hungarian compromise of 1867 when the two nations became one, establishing a dual monarchy — Louis Stephens

Social Darwinism - Social Darwinism is application of natural selection to persons, groups, and races. The idea is that the same process of natural selection Charles Darwin observed in plants and animals applies to society as well. British philosopher Herbert Spencer’s described it as “survival of the fittest,” the idea being that the strong grow stronger and gain influence over the weak. This theory was popular during the late 19th century and early 20th century. (Connor Haines)

Social Darwinism applies Darwin's principles to humanity in providing a philosophical justification for oppression. Instead of holding a the typical negative connotations, Social Darwinists hold that the strong are justified in their oppression of the weak as the weak's inability to fend for themselves makes them morally inferior. Social Darwinism, as a philosophy, represents a harmful application of Darwin's principles, one that completely eschews Darwin's original thought, instead simply using Darwin's name as a way to justify evil acts.-David Farrow

Crimean War:The Crimean War (1853-1856) was an attempt for expansion by the Russians. Great Britain, France, and the Ottoman Empire fought against the Russians with the hope of demolishing the Russian forces. While France had little faith in the success of a future Italian Unification, Piedmont-Sardinia joined the fight in favor of the French. Once the Russians lost and were forced to modernize, a foundation for an alliance was created between France and Piedmont-Sardinia. (Lauren Burton)

The First International: The First International was an anarchist organization led mainly by Bakunin and Marx. It was first called in 1864 and consisted of radicals hoping to tear down the modern state structure through assassinations, which they carried out through assassin cells all across the world. The organization grew severely weak when Bakunin and Marx had a falling out and they were unable to organize and coordinate their efforts in the same way. –Richmond

Mikhail Bakunin:Russian anarchist who was part of the First International called in 1864. Bakunin and Marx didn’t get along, however, so they split and the First International was never very organized after that. As an anarchist, he believed that any institution that took away the freedom of the individual, like government structures, were the root of all evil and wanted to destroy them. –Richmond

-anarchism - Anarchism is a political theory that believes all forms of government control to be harmful and unnecessary. Anarchists typically advocate a society based on free association between individuals and voluntary cooperation. (Connor Haines)

Anarchism extrapolates the quest for freedom to its most logical extreme in that it views any governing structure as a direct hinderance to the freedom of the individual. Thus, the anarchist concerns himself with removing any rule making body, through any means necessary. As such, violence is justified as long as said violence builds towards the destruction of the state and the freedom of the individual form the burdens imposed by the state.-David Farrow

Georges Sorel: French scholar who wrote the book Reflections on Violence. The book was a reaction to Marx and founded Syndicalism, a political philosophy advocating direct revolutionary action as opposed to sitting back and letting the course of history take place as Marx theorized. He wanted mass unionizing into radical and violent organizations that start with a general strike and work their way up to assert their power. –Richmond
Although he did not become interested in social issues for a long time, the French socialist put an original theory on violence that questions the very definition of the word. He encouraged anarchy through his syndicalism proposition. Although this idea may sound crazy, this belief stemmed off his feeling that social complacency was a great evil in the world. (Robert Jessell)

-syndicalism - Syndicalism is essentially the restructuring of the economy by labor unions in each industry. The purpose of this is negating the advantage of those who possess the means of production by handing it over to the majority. This philosophy is obviously opposing capitalism, and is close, but not equal to socialism. It was created in a reaction to the Industrial Revolution. Matt Borin

Paris Commune - The brief socialist government that occurred in France after the creation of the 3rd Republic. This commune was Parisians brief flirtation with radical socialism in 1870. It only lasted a few months and is considered a failure, but it left behind a bitter enemy and a bitter desire for revenge in the minds of the French against the Germans (Ellie Sheild).
With the National Assembly so willing to create peace with the Prussians, the republican Parisians felt it their duty to fight against it. Violent socialists from all over France prepared themselves to take on the National Assembly, and yet they failed to create an organized military system to do so. The Commune was suppressed by the National Assembly with ease, and order was restored. (Robert Jessell)

Benjamin Disraeli - Benjamin Disraeli (1804-1881) was a British statesman and novelist. He twice served as prime minister, first in 1868 and then from 1874-80. He is remembered for garnering the Conservative party towards a policy of Tory democracy and imperialism. (Connor Haines)

William Gladstone - William Gladstone (1809-1898) served as prime minister of Great Britain four times, first from 1868-70, then from 1880-85, then in 1886, and finally from 1892-94. Gladstone was a liberal statesman who earned the nickname “The People’s William” and is remembered for his rivalry with Benjamin Disraeli (Disraeli had his own, less flattering nickname for William – “God’s Only Mistake”). (Connor Haines)

Suffragettes: Led by Emmeline Pankhurst, the suffragettes were a late 19th century radical women’s rights group advocating the use of violence and direct action to get women the vote. They weren’t terribly effective initially but their efforts helped expand women’s voting rights to all women 21+ by 1928. –Richmond

Syllabus of Errors - The Syllabus of Errors was a list of grievances written in 1864 by Pope Pius IX that addressed all that he hates in the modern society. In this list of errors, Pius IX said that the Papacy and Church were willing to use military intervention if need be and he also outwardly stated that every human should be Catholic. But, outsiders read his Syllabus and believed that the Catholics were completely out of touch with the modern world. Let's just say it was not well recieved. (Ellie Sheild)

Rerum Novarum - issued by pope leo XIII in 1891, this encyclical (circulating letter) advocated for the rights of the working class. This letter was pro-union, anti-communism, and anti-unrestricted capitalism. It was a bit of a mid point for the workers and the owners. — Louis Stephens

After the Syllabus of Errors and declarations of papal infallibility had created tension between the Catholic Church and modern progress, scientific advancement, and republican politics, Pope Leo XIII took a different approach, instead focusing on being a beacon of morality without completely rejecting all aspects of modern society. Rerum Novarum literally means “about new things,” and it also provided criticism of lack of social equality, as well as criticism of different economic systems (capitalism and communism and strove for overarching economic justice. –DavisHeniford

psychoanalysis - Psychoanalysis was a method of curing psychosis through therapy (talking to a therapist) developed by psychologist Sigmund Freud. Freud was the first person to attempt to address illness of the mind and to propose a cure. Psychoanalysis was an attempt to understand the subjects subconscious, often through the interpretation of their dreams, which Freud details in his book, the Interpretation of Dreams. Matt Borin

Psychoanalysis represents an important break from traditional medecine. Whereas before medicine had attempting to solely deal with the visible illness, those that can be directly perceived by the mind, Freud's psychoanalysis eludes to the fact that ailments beyond the strictly physical exist. As such, Frued opens up new fields, forcing us to question the importance of our sense in perceiving illness.-David Farrow

Sigmund Freud - was an Austrian Jew who addressed the Crisis of Reason. He developed this new science of psychoanalysis where through theory and therapy one would talk through their problems. In 1900 Freud wrote his groundbreaking book, "Interpretation of Dreams" which revealed that the unconscious was absent, yet active. He convinced people that when we think our rational mind determines our actions, but we are more guided by impulse than rational thought. So when you are asleep, you are thinking your true mind. Many were inspired by his ideas and trailblazing efforts, but not necessarily his conclusions. Freud had Victorian values, yet he believed that the psychosis were problems relation to our innermost sexual frustration…which made him highly controversial b/c not many people openly talked about sex. People were also freaked out by his notion that humans think they are rational beings, but in actuality it is urges and desires that motivate individuals(Ellie Sheild).

Jack the Ripper - Historians use Jack the Ripper to figure out the underlying dirty world during the seeming proper Victorian Age in England. Queen Victoria ruled from (1857-1901) with a main emphasis on respectability. But one of the major problems during this Era was Prostitution, which was made obvious by Jack The Ripper's murders in 1888. He was technically the first modern serial killer and received much publicity, although he was never caught. He murdered around 5 (but could have been responsible for 9 killings) Prostitutes in a very specific fashion, thus he became the symbol of how bad things really were. Letters remain that could have been written by the Ripper, but it is commonly accepted that none of these were in fact written by him. (Ellie Sheild)

Soren Kierkegaard - Soren Kierekegaard was a Danish writer and philosopher and is considered to be the “father of existentialism,” but he contributed to many other areas during his short life (1813-1855). A devout Christian, he worked to revitalize Christianity in Europe. (Jane Wester)

Albert Einstein - Einstein is responsible for the Special Theory of Relativity and the General Theory of Relativity. Although he worked extensively with quantum theory, he actually hoped to disprove it, because he hated the idea that location of particles could not be decided with exactitude. He was born in Germany and completed his first work while daydreaming as a patent clerk in Switzerland. He won a Nobel Prize in physics in 1921 and emigrated to the US in 1933. (Jane Wester)

Michael Faraday - Faraday published his findings on electromagnetic rotation, the principle behind the electric motor, in 1821. He went on to discover electromagnetic induction, the principle behind the electric transformer and generator, in 1831. His innovations were crucial to the popularization of electrical technology. (Jane Wester)

Gregor Mendel - Mendel, an Austrian monk, discovered the principles of genetic inheritance through his work with pea plants. He disproved the idea that descendents show a "blend" of the parents' traits and introduced the idea of dominant and recessive traits. Mendel's work recieved little attention during his lifetime, but he is now considered the "father of modern genetics." (Jane Wester)

Gregor also, as pointed out by Dr. Kneidel, would have understood many of the observations made by Charles Darwin. — Louis Stephens

Charles Darwin - Charles Darwin was an English scientist most well known today for his Theory of Evolution by Natural Selection. Where evolution, while still being an out there idea for the time, had been discussed before, Darwin’s idea of natural selection was groundbreaking. This theory arose during a trip around the world on a ship called the Beagle. Darwin’s discovery of numerous species and fossils reinforced in his mind the Theory of Evolution, which he detailed upon his return in his book On The Origin Of Species. He was publicly criticized for his ideas during his time, as they were very unpopular with the religious. Matt Borin
It is also important to note that Darwin’s ideas created a crisis of confidence in many religious people, who then either had to reject religion, Darwinism, or find a way to reconcile them with each other. While many chose the last option, those who chose one of the first two were constantly against each other and the tensions that existed between those two groups continue into this day. Darwin also wrote Descent of Man in 1871. (Beuler)

On the Origin of Species:“On the Origin of Species” was a book written by Charles Darwin in 1859. This book created a lot a controversy with the church because Darwin’s theories of evolution that were presented in his book directly challenged the basis of religion. Darwin’s book explained the theory of evolution from his travel to the Galápagos’ Islands and his extensive study of the finch population. (Lauren Burton)

Louis Pasteur - Louis Pasteur was a French chemist and biologist. Today he is most well known for his work in pasteurization, which is the process of killing microbes in products, but during his life he worked on many things. Perhaps his most important contribution to science was his study of microbiology, which he was one of the founders of. He was a proponent of the germ theory of disease and using this he created vaccines to several diseases. Matt Borin

Salon de Refuses: The Salon de Refuses, the exhibition of works rejected by the traditional-minded Parisian art board, housed works by experimenting nonconformist artists. Impressionism, based off of interpretation and artistic freedom, was one of the most successful modern art movements, catalyzed by the invention of the camera. This movement, due to its rejection of traditional ways and the harsh criticism it received by traditionalists created big name recognition for Monet and Degas. (KatieMayo)