French Revolution And Napoleon 7th Period

Key Terms: French Revolution and Napoleon

Abbe Sieyes- (1748-1836) was a member of the clergy, but an advocate for the Third Estate. After years of witnessing the unfair advantages the nobility had in climbing the ranks of the clergy as compared to members of the Third Estate, and studying enlightenment works, he not only became disillusioned with his faith, but also was inspired to write his incredibly influential pamphlet “What is the Third Estate?” in January 1789. In the pamphlet, he famously said, “What is the Third Estate? Everything. What has it been until now in the political order? Nothing. What does it ask? To become something.” This empowered the members of the Third Estate to declare themselves the National Assembly of France. Sieyes reappeared politically in the Directory, overthrowing it with Napoleon Bonaparte to create the Consulate in 1799. -Alexis

Alexander I of Russia (relations with Napoleon and Congress of Vienna) - A representative for Russia at the Congress of Vienna, Alexander I was a devout conservative and a devout Russian Orthodox Christian. He believed that all of Europe's problems could be solved by making Christianity the driving factor in all foreign policy. His attempts to expand Christian influence and fight liberalism led to the creation of his "Holy Alliance". ~Ashley

Battle of Nations (Leipzig)-the largest battle in European history prior to WWI, this conflict involved more than 600,000 soldiers; Prussia, Russia, and Austria against Napoleonic France. Napoleon lost and was exiled to the island of Elba where he would rule as Emperor. kristen.

Battle of Trafalgar—In this naval battle against Great Britain in 1805, Napoleon lost to Admiral Horatio Nelson. It was a huge victory for the English because it showed Britain's naval supremacy and gave Britain control of the Atlantic, cutting off France and Spain from South America, which allowed revolts to flourish in colonies. This causes Napoleon to resort to defeating Great Britain through Plan B, economic defeat, through the Continental System, which essentially put an embargo on trade with England and bans all English ships from docking at continental ports. —Connie

Battle of Waterloo-the conflict between England and France after Napoleon escaped the island of Elba and returned to re-gain control of France in his Hundred Days Campaign, resulting in Napoleon being removed from power and exiled to the island of St. Helena where he would eventually die. kristen.

Brumaire Coup- November 1799. Organized by Abbe Sieyes, the purpose of the coup was to overthrow the inefficient Directory and put in power Napoleon. Abbe Sieyes picked Napoleon because of his popularity, having just returned from his successful Egyptian campaign, and therefore knew people would follow him. Perhaps more importantly, Abbe Sieyes also thought he would be able to control Napoleon politically because of his relative lack of experience in this realm. He was wrong. The threat of a Neo-Jacobin plot was proclaimed and Napoleon demanded emergency powers. With this he took power and formed the Consulate with Abbe Sieyes and Roger Ducos. -Becca

Cahiers- (April 1789) or “notebooks of grievances,” were the documents Louis XVI requested from the members of each of the three estates to compile a list of issues to be covered at the next meeting of the Estates General. The members of the Third Estate were empowered by this request, as they believed they would actually have a say in the government, but were shot down then Louis denied their main request, to have voting in the Estates General be by head, and not by Estate. These grievances also reflect the Third Estate’s loyalty to the king, showing that they still regarded themselves as subjects of the king, not as equals, as the members of the National Assembly would later on. -Alexis

Civil Constitution of the Clergy, 1790- was put into effect during the height of the National Assembly. It stated that all clergy of the Roman Catholic Church must swear allegiance to the National Assembly, rather than to the pope. Only 54% of the clergy consented. The remaining 46% were known as “refractory priests,” and were not allowed to practice legally. The result of the constitution was a schism in France, as many French people were still devoutly religious. About half thought that the National Assembly was overstepping their boundaries, and the other half rallied behind this cause. -Alexis

Concordat of 1801-was Napoleon’s attempt to gain Royalist support by reinstating Catholicism as the “preferred” religion of France, allowing religious tolerance to Jews and Protestants, and doing away with the revolutionary calendar. However, the church was not given complete control of the situation by any means. Bishops were to be selected by the pope only from a list compiled by Napoleon, the refractory priests were to be forced to resign, and the church must renounce all claims to their land seized in the revolution. The church was largely under the control of the state, but Napoleon revived enough of it to win the support of the Royalists. -Alexis

Condorcet, Marquis de Was a French mathematician, philosopher, and early political scientist. He advocated for a liberal, laissez-faire economy, free and equal public education, constitutionalism, and equal rights for women and people of all races. He embodied the ideals of the Enlightenment age and rationalism. In his essay the “Progress of the Human Mind” Condorcet displayed the confidence he had in human goodness and in reason. He believed superstition, prejudice, intolerance, and tyranny would gradually be eliminated and humanity would enter a golden age. He envisioned man progressing toward a perfectly utopian society but for that to occur man must unify despite race, religion, culture, or gender. - Chuka

Congress of Vienna - The Congress of Vienna was a series of meetings over lavish parties and dinners between Europe's "Big Five" powers who were represented by (name): Austria (Klemens von Metternich), Prussia, Russia (Tsar Alexander I), Great Britain (Lord Castlereagh), and eventually France (Prince Talleyrand). The conservative powers sought to respect tradition, restore the Balance of Power, reassert dominance of conservative monarchs, and oversee the territorial redistribution of lands conquered by Napoleon. The Congress succeeded in slowing (but not stopping) the progress of European liberalism, while simultaneously producing an effective peace settlement. ~Ashley

Consulate-The French government after the Directory and before Napoleon's Empire. Napoleon was one of three consuls, working with Jean-Jaques Regis and Charles Francios Lebrun, until 1800 when he was named First Consul in a public referendum. The Consulate ended in 1804 when Napoleon was declared Emperor in another public referendum. Kristen.

Continental System – In 1806 Napoleon issued the Continental System, which was an embargo on all trade with England. Napoleon had tried to destroy Great Britain militarily, like in the Battle of Trafalgar, but had lost to Admiral Horatio Nelson. His continental system was not successful, however, in that smuggling was common. This system also eventually led to the War of 1812. – Erin

Corday, Charlotte- murdered Marat by stabbing him to death in his bathtub. She lied to the doorman about having more names for his list of “enemies of the Revolution” in order to gain access to him. Corday sympathized with the Girondins who were often targeted by Marat in his newspaper. Corday was sent to the guillotine after assassinating Marat. -Becca

Danton, Georges Danton was a member of the Jacobin leadership, or the Mountain, who was guillotined by Robespierre for trying to relax the violent measures of the Reign of Terror. At first, he was Robespierre’s right-hand man because he was a charismatic speaker and could convince the French people that Robespierre’s radical ideas were necessary; however, after seeing these ideas in practice, he publicly argued for a less brutal approach. Danton’s execution eventually led the French to denounce Robespierre as a tyrant during the Thermidorian Reaction. -Grace

David, Jacques Louis - Jacques Louis David – Was an influential French painter whose lifetime spanned from 1748-1825. He’s remembered for his neoclassical style of painting. He avidly supported the revolution and was imprisoned after the fall of Robespierre. When Napoleon I came to power David aligned himself with this political regime and began painting propaganda for Napoleon. This is where he developed the type of Empire style technique he used with Venetian colors. David had a large number of pupils and is considered to be the most influential in French art for the early 19th century, especially for academic salon painting. - Chuka

Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen—(1789) This was one of the most important documents of the French Revolution. It defined the high-minded Enlightenment ideals, such as liberty and equality, that the new government would base its decisions on. Though it wasn't an official constitution by any means, it outlined the glorious, awesome moral aspects of the revolution. —Connie

Directory—The Directory (1795-99) was the interim government that took over after the death of Maximilian Robespierre. The executive branch consisted of five men who had to reach a consensus to make significant situations, which was basically very rare. The Directory's goal was to achieve peace and stability, and to slow the Revolution down a bit. However, the Directory eventually crumbles as the country splits between the Royalists, who want another constitutional monarchy, and the Neo-Jacobins, who support what Robespierre stood for and were more radical. —Connie

Duke of Wellington-Most famous for defeating Napoleon at the Battle of Waterloo, he also served as Prime Minister twice. Kristen.

Estates General - Under the Ancien Regime, the Estates General was the legislative assembly in France consisting of representatives from the three estates: Clergy, Nobles, and all others (peasants or bourgeoisie). The 3rd Estate had the most representatives, but voting was done by estate, not by head, so the first two estates would usually vote the same and be able to get what they wanted. Louis XVI called the Estates General to discuss taxing the nobility; this was the first time they had met since 1614. – Erin

Girondins- These were the faction of the National Assembly who did not agree to executing Louis XVI, now Citizen Capet. The Girondins were sort of in between moderates and Jacobins. They did not agree with the continuation of the monarchy but also resisted the extreme violence of the Jacobins. The Girondins lost the vote in the National Convention (1st Republic government) by a close 387-334 split. Almost all of the Girondins were guillotined during the beginning of the Reign of Terror. -Becca

Gouge, Olympe de Olympe de Gouge was a playwright who wrote a pamphlet called the Declaration of the Rights of Woman in 1791 in response to the National Assembly’s Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen in 1789. Using purposefully similar language, she demanded the same rights for women, and in the postscript, she addressed her fellow women, begging them to “wake up” and seize the opportunity provided by the French Revolution to gain equality. Although divorce laws and education for women improved, the role of women did not change dramatically during the revolution. Olympe de Gouge was executed during the Reign of Terror for her radical ideas. -Grace

Great Fear -
The Great Fear is the term for the panic that was felt throughout the English countryside by the peasants. They were afraid that the nobles were hoarding grain from the starving peasants, so the peasants revolted and attacked nobles’ manors. - Leora

Hundred Days (Napoleon) - After Napoleon had been exiled to the island of Elba, he soon after escaped, returned to France, and began the Hundred Days Campaign. When he returned to his native land, many French people rallied to his side, while King Louis XVIII fled. His attempt to reassert his authority was ultimately truncated by his defeat at the Battle of Waterloo against the Duke of Wellington. ~Ashley

Invasion of Russia (Napoleon) - Napoleon's ambitious and ultimately fatal attempt to invade Russia began in 1812. Russia was failing to uphold their promise of maintaining the Continental System (a blockade against trade with Great Britain), so Napoleon felt invasion was necessary. He rallied a "Grand Army" of more than 600,000 men and crossed Russian borders in June of 1812. Rather than face confrontation, the Russian fled deeper into their own territory while simultaneously burning any and all resources in their wake. Subsequently, Napoleon and his troops were left with little food and shelter, and thousands upon thousands froze to death or died of starvation. In September the Russians burned their own capital, but Napoleon waited until October to call for retreat. Thousands of casualties were sustained as a result. This invasion was the beginning of Napoleon's end. ~Ashley

Jacobins - The Jacobins were Revolutionaries led by Marat, Hebert, Danton, and Robespierre. They were the sans-culottes, poor radicals who encouraged violent rebellion. The Jacobins believed the government should follow the will of the masses and get rid of the chains of the past, including the Church and the calendar with Sunday. Their motto was “Liberte, Egalite, Fraternite,” a phrase first uttered by Danton. - Leora

Legislative Assembly- This was the French government from October of 1791 to September of 1792. It consisted of two conflicting factions, the jacobins and the others who favored a constitutional monarchy. It was more radical than the National Assembly, but less radical than the national convention. -Sam S

Marat- Jean-Paul Marat was a writer during the French Revolution of an extremely Jacobin news paper Friend of the People. He is especially known for his seething reaction to the attempted escape of Louis XVI. Marat called for violence against tradition. Marat also published the names of “enemies of the revolution” he believed should be sent to the guillotine. Marat suffered a skin disease because of his time living in the sewers of Paris and therefore spent most of his time soaking in the bathtub. Marat was killed by Charlotte Corday and became a martyr for the Jacobin cause. His death was publicized by Jacques Louis David’s famous painting, “Death of Marat” in 1793. -Becca

Marie Antoinette Marie Antoinette was the daughter of Maria Theresa and Austrian. She was the wife of Louis XVI and the embodiment of all that the Revolutionaries despised. She was wealthy, disconnected from the rest of French society, and did not seem to care about those whom she ruled. Her execution is representative of how far the Revolutionaries strayed from their original ideals, for Antoinette’s death had no purpose other than pleasing the masses. - Leora

Marquis de Lafayette- the "hero of two wars" was a prominent general in the American Revolutionary War and also a prominent leader of the French Revolution. He represents the inspiration for the French that came from the American successful overthrow of a monarchy. -Sam S

Metternich - Klemens Von Metternich was the foreign minister of Austria, and was the main proponent of the conservative cause in the Congress of Vienna. Metternich hated Napoleon and how he affected Europe, and did everything he could to reverse the Republican influence that Napoleon brought. He was a role model for conservatives, and led many attempts to crush liberal uprisings or movements. - Hayes

Napoleonic Code The Napoleonic or Civil Code of 1804 was Napoleon’s proudest accomplishment. He incorporated and refined the progressive laws created throughout the revolution’s various governments in order to establish political stability while maintaining important revolutionary ideals. In his new law code, Napoleon ensured freedom of religion, declared equality before the law, and assured the authority of business, the rule of law, and the protection of the property-owning class. To establish social stability, Napoleon asserted patriarchal authority within the family, which did not contradict revolutionary ideals because women never gained equality during the revolution. His legalization of torture was justified by the state’s need to maintain control and political stability, and his reinstitution of slavery in the colonies supported his promise to protect the bourgeoisie’s economic interests. David’s portrait of “Napoleon in his Study” shows that Napoleon believed his Civil Code, not his conquest, was his greatest contribution to France. -Grace

National Assembly- this was a period of transition between the estates general and the legislative assembly. The tennis court oath was one of the first acts of this at the time illegitimate body, and it said that they would not leave their positions until France had a constitution. -Sam S

National Convention - Government of France from 1792 until the creation of the Directory. They led an insurrection to take Louis out of power officially, and held elections to create the new government. All men over 25 voted, and this was the first large universal male suffrage vote in Europe. The convention was in power during the reign of terror and was a harsh regime. The Convention was a huge government, and controlled nearly all aspects of French life. While corrupt, it also advanced modern France, with new education, abolishing slavery throughout the Empire, and creating the Great Book of public Debt, which consolidated all of the governments debts in a uniform system. - Hayes

Necker, Jacques -Necker was a Swiss banker brought in as Louis’s finance minister after Jacques Turgot. He at first assures the government that the debt is not that bad, and that major reform was not necessary. He even urged the government to continue to borrow money, which, of course, exacerbated the situation. Necker then tried to reform royal spending, which took up 6% of the budget, by publishing the royal budget. This did not facilitate any significant change, but he was seen as a man of the people. That reputation eventually got him ousted in 1787. - Erin

Reign of Terror - The reign of terror was a 10-month period in which suspected enemies of the revolution were guillotined by the thousands. Many of the killings were carried out under orders from Robespierre, who dominated the Committee of Public Safety until his own execution on July 28, 1794. During this time period the newly sanctioned Constitution was suspended and the French people didn’t have their rights that the whole revolution was fought for. Robespierre became fanatical and wanted to purge all of France of corruptness until he was finally executed. - Chuka

Robespierre, Maximilian Maximilian Robespierre was the leader of the Jacobins and the French Revolution. He was in charge of the Committee of Public Safety, a 12 man committee, and basically the entire government during the Reign of Terror. He was practically a dictator and enforced the ideals of the French Revolution throughout Paris. He was executed at the guillotine when he could not keep control of the Revolution anymore. - Leora

sans-culottes The sans-culottes were poor, radical Parisian militants who, in Hebert’s opinion, led the real revolution in France. Hebert wanted the government to encourage and follow the actions of the sans-culottes and even believed that they were the best representation of what Rousseau meant with his vague “General Will” idea. Literally, the sans-culottes were men who wore trousers rather than the fashionable knee breeches that the bourgeoisie wore. -Grace

September Massacres - In 1792, a series of violent massacres took place. The revolutionairies had captured thousands of prisoners, and as the prussian army advanced, they were frightened that the prisoners would rise up and help the invaders. The sans-culottes began a frenzied killing of prisoners, many of whom were clergymembers or nobles relatives. These acts of radical violence were a sign of things to come in the Reign of Terror. - Hayes

Storming of the Bastille -Occurred in France on the morning of July 14, 1789. The royal prison was attacked by an organized mob because the prison represented royal tyranny and authority. This was a part of a series of major events that began the French revolution. This event occurred after the formation of the National assembly and the Tennis Court Oath. It was also a strategic attack because the prison had a large amount of gunpowder as well. After taking the Bastille the mob paraded through the streets, showing off their captives, and crudely cutting off many heads. - Chuka

Tallyrand- Was a french Politician whose career extended from pre-revolution all the way to Louis-Phillipe. He was an expert in playing the political game, and switched sides from Conservative to Liberal often. He fled during the revolution, and returned to France to work with Napoleon as foriegn minister. He abanadoned Napoleon before his fall, and gained the trust of the people. At the congress of Vienna he was responsible for diverting much of the punishment that the other nations originailly wanted to place on France. He helped restore the House of Bourbon and convinced the Congress that France should remain strong to prevent another revolution. - Hayes

Tennis Court Oath - On June 20, 1789, Louis locked members to the National Assembly out of the meeting hall of the Estates General. So, the members met in an indoor tennis court and swore they would not disband until they had created a Constitution for the country of France – Erin

The tennis court oath was the first action of the new body, the National Assembly. The new members agreed that they would not resign until they had given France a constitution. This event was significant because it was one of the first truly revolutionary actions of the French Revolution. -Sam S

Thermidorian Reaction—This began in Year 2 of the Revolutionary calendar, or 1794 in the real world. This period of time was marked by a cooling of revolutionary sentiment triggered in part by France's military victories against Austria, Prussia, England, and Spain, which decreased the feverish sense of urgency of the Revolution. Robespierre died after getting arrested for trying to get rid of Danton, who people actually liked, and the interim government that took over, The Directory, decided that they needed to slow down and make their goal general peace and stability. —Connie

Here are my notes on the major turning points from the moderate to the radical phase of the revolution:
-Mr. Edwards

The Turning Points-  The Beginning of the Radical Revolution

1. June, 1791-  Flight to Varennes:  King and Family flee
King hoping to unite with emigres
King is abandoning his people
Moderates don't abandon hope yet… they still need him and don't want a Republic
Radicals like Jean-Paul Marat, newspaper man, former doctor, lived in sewers and contracted a skin disease
2. War, April 1792- Austria, Prussia
Radicals-  wanted to crush emigres and threats to Revolution
Losses early on give the Radicals more ammunition
Welcomed by radicals and conservatives
- conservatives hoped the Austrians would win restoring Louis’ full power
- 85% of officers in old French army had been nobles… how could they win
- major losses early on for the French
Sets up Brunswick Manifesto
3. Brunswick Manifesto and Storming of Tuileries Palace,  Aug, 1792
i. Duke of Brunswick (Prussian) warns that no harm should come to King or he'll open fresh can on Paris
ii. Louis XVI— he publishes the Manifesto, showing that he is relying on the protection of Prussians
iii. Parisians storm the Tuileries Palace, Aug 10— 600 guards killed, King flees, protected by Leg. Assembly,  ultimately sent to prison
1. King "suspended" by Nat'l Assembly
2. Parisians (sans-culottes create the Paris Commune… local gov’t run by people)
⁃ would vie for power with the National Convention
3. Effectively ended the monarchy-  Those Leg. Assembly members  that didn't flee voted to create the National Convention
4. Moderates had lost all credibility at this point
4. September Massacres:  Sept, 1792
i. Fearing the swelling numbers in the jails, and provoked by Marat…
ii. Three days of "popular tribunals" and slaughter in the prisons
5. Execution of the King:  Jan 21, 1793
i. Louis XVI (r.1774-1792)-  Citizen Capet
ii. Vote of 387-334 in Convention
1. Vote really splits the Girondin and the Jacobins
a. Girondin- not moderates, but unwilling to go as far as Jacobins
i. They want to push back against the sans-culottes
6. Vendee:  "Catholic and Royalist Army" rebels in Western France, 1793
i. In reaction to the “levee en masse”… many resisted conscription
ii. Convention sends in army— violent civil war crushing rebellion
iii. Class tensions between rural peasants and Parisian bourgeois Jacobins