French Revolution And Napoleon 2nd Period

Key Terms: French Revolution and Napoleon

Abbe Sieyes was a clergyman (abbot) and skilled statesman, but worked with the third estate and fought for their representation. "What is the third estate…" Later forms consulate with Napoleon after instigating Brumaire coup, hoping to maintain most power, but Napoleon unexpectedly outmaneuvers him. Jordan

Alexander I of Russia (relations with Napoleon and Congress of Vienna)
Battle of Nations (Leipzig) Napoleon's Germanic campaign was ended after his defeat here, at the hands of the coalition armies of Russia, Prussia, Austria, and Sweden. Those armies then proceeded to invade France, and that is when Nappy abdicated and was exiled to Elba. Largest battle in Europe prior to WWI. Jordan

Battle of Trafalgar - A naval conflict between Great Britain and France that occurred on October 21, 1805. France was humiliated by the British under the leadership of Lord Horatio Nelson, losing 22 ships to Britain's zero lost. Nelson was killed in action and became one of Britain's greatest military heroes. After the battle, Great Britain had reaffirmed its naval supremacy and control over Gibraltar. France would not engage Britain in a serious naval conflict again. (Shredz)

Battle of Waterloo - It was fought on June 18, 1815 near Waterloo (present-day Brussels, Belgium) between Napoleon’s Imperial French army and the armies of the Seventh Coalition, an Anglo-Allied army led by the Duke of Wellington combined with a Prussian army. Napoleon lost, and the defeat ended his rule as Emperor of the French (King Louis XVIII was restored to the French throne) , marked the end of his Hundred Days return from exile, and marked the beginning of a second, more permanent exile to Saint Helena, where he died in 1821 (most likely of an actual stomach ulcer as opposed to his previous “Spanish Ulcer”) - Chuma

Brumaire Coup - In November 1799, led by Abbe Sieyes, the Brumaire Coup was a coup against the Directory. Because of Sieyes’ need for a face for the coup, he asked Napoleon Bonaparte, a well loved and hero for France. In order for Napoleon to gain power, they made up a story of a Neo-Jacobin takeover plot and because of this Napoleon was able to demand to take emergency power from the Directory to protect France. Afterwards the Directory fell and the Consulate took over with both Abbe Sieyes and Napoleon as two of the Consuls. (Hannah)

Cahiers also known as the notebooks of grievances, were requested by Louis as he hoped this would add momentum to passing the tax on nobles. Ironically this wakes up the people of France to the problems in their lives, and they start to rebel against the Ancien regime when nothing changes. Jordan

Civil Constitution of the Clergy, 1790 -This is considered the 1st big mistake of the revolution, a miscalculation by the National Assembly which was still in its moderate phase at the time. This forced all priests to swear an oath of allegiance the the Nat'l Assembly. If priests took this oath they would be validating the Assembly's siege of church lands, but if they did not swear oath, they would be labeled as traitors to the revolution which could ultimately mean a threat to their lives. This caused a split amongst the priests and worse a split among the people who consequently had to choose between supporting their priest/ faith and supporting the revolution. The non-pledging priests were called refractory priests. This is a prime example of the gov't beginning to over step their bounds which triggered the start of an Anti-rev backlash. (Mary)

Concordat of 1801 - This agreement between Napoleon and Pope Pius VII that partially restored the place of Catholicism in French Society. While it was not made the official religion, it would enjoy 'preferred religion' status. However, this agreement was not entirely to the liking of Refractory Priests as the French Government gained more powers, like nominating the bishops and the Church was to give up all claims to confiscated lands. (Shredz)

Condorcet, Marquis de
Congress of ViennaAfter Napoleon's defeat and exile, the major powers of Europe met and redrew the borders of European nations, in an effort to establish a balance of power. Most borders were drawn sloppily and without much knowledge of ethnic or cultural differences, contributing to the buildup of tensions preceding WWI… Jordan

Consulate - The First Consulate was formed by Napoleon, Abbe Seiyes, and Roger Ducos after Seiyes started the Brumaire coup, ousting the Directory. Although Seiyes anticipated holding most power, Napoleon pulls a power play and becomes Consul for life in 1802, then emperor in 1804. Jordan

Continental System - Also known as the Continental Blockade, this was a foreign policy of Napoleon during the Napoleonic Wars that attempted to weaken Great Britain. This large-scale embargo against Britain lasted from 1806 until 1814. Using his control over the majority of European ports, he made it policy to refuse English ships. Also, an important consequence of this policy came in 1812 when Russia refused to comply and Napoleon invaded, leading to his eventual downfall. (Shredz)
1806. This was Napoleon's back up plan when he was not able to weaken or defeat the british as he conquered the majority of mainland Europe. Because he had control of most all of the western coast of Europe, he decided that the best way to weaken and defeat England was economically. He banned all english ships from ports along the western coast and banned all trade with english ports. Good idea in theory, but the reality was so much smuggling was going on that enforcing this system was next to impossible. Also, the russian betrayal of the continental system ultimately led to Napoleon's invasion of Russia. (Mary)

Corday, Charlotte - Charlotte Corday was the Girondon who hated Marat for purging her party. She blamed him in part for the radical course the revolution had taken. One day she went to Marat's house and told his guard she had a list of enemies of Marat. The guard led her to Marat who was soaking in his bathtub because of his skin condition. Corday handed Marat the list and then pulled out a knife and stabbed him. She was arrested and executed. (Laura)

Danton, Georges - (1759-1794) During the French Revolution, for the majority of the time, he served as the closest advisor the Maximilen Robespierre. Danton served during the first commission on the Committee of Public Safety, but then was not a part of the committee during the re-commission. Danton was in complete agreement with Robespierre, until the Reign of Terror. Within this time period, Danton voiced publicly his opposition to the Reign of Terror because of its brutal measures, and was subsequently indicted because of this. He was executed along with Girondins and Desmoulin in 1794. (Ricky)

David, Jacques Louis- A French artist known for his ties to the radical Jacobins. His artwork included The Death of Socrates, in which he depicts the final scene of Socrates’ life, speaking also to the death of reason he saw in French society at the time. –Richmoney

Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen - The Declaration of the Rights of Man & Citizen, was written in 1789 by the National Assembly. This document was a statement of ideals of equality for all men and defined the individual and collective, universal rights. It also portrayed the three main ideals throughout the French Revolution, liberty, equality and fraternity. (Hannah)

Directory-1795-99. This was the government that replaced the extremely radical National Convention after the death of Robespierre in 1794. Its goal was foremost stability and peace. The radical government had gone too far and more structure, stability was a necessity. In an effort to decrease efficiency, impulsive decisions, the directory consisted of 5 executives which purposefully created a more balanced, checked executive. They also emphasized less violence. The only major repercussion of the forming of this government was that the country was split on deciding the best way to restore stability. The Royalists believed that restoring the monarchy would bring back stability provided that it was a constitutional monarchy; bringing back to ancien regime was out of the question. Their opposition was the Neo-Jacobin party, a group of more modern jacobins who still believed in equality but not the violence. Unfortunately for the Neo-Jacobins, no one really believed that they had changed all that much, diminishing their support. (Mary)

Duke of Wellington - Formally Field Marshal Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington, he was a British soldier and statesman and a native of Ireland, as well as one of the leading military men of the 19th century. He was commissioned as ensign to the British army in 1787, but he rose to prominence as a general and later a field marshal during the (Spanish) Peninsular campaign of the Napoleonic Wars, during which he led the allied forces to key victories against France. In 1815, the Duke defeated Napoleon for good at Waterloo. Later, he would be named Commander in Chief of the British army, a position he held until his death. (Chuma)

Estates General- The Estate General was called by Charles Calonne and hadn’t been called since 1614 to discuss a tax on the nobility. It was made up of three Estates. The 1st Estate was comprised of 50 representatives from the Clergy, the 2nd Estate was made up of 100 representatives from the nobility, and the 3rd Estate was made up of 400 representatives from the rest of the population including peasants, urban workers, and Bourgeoisie. The number of representatives was meant to exemplify the amount of people in each estate, but instead of voting by head, they voted by Estate, making any reforms for the betterment of the 3rd Estate—the majority of the population – very difficult. The Estates General was an insufficient representation of the population and it was quickly identified as that after being called. Sarah Tomlin

Girondins- This party rose out of the opposition to the execution of King Louis (Citizen Capet) 16 on Jan. 21. 1793. The radical government at the time, The National Convention, put the king on trial for treason. The vote was almost completely split because this decision really had never had to have been made before. Henceforth, the convention was split between the most radical Jacobins and the somewhat less radical Girondins who believed that the king should not be killed. The Girondin party was the Jacobin's enemy form here on out. (Mary)

Gouge, Olympe de - Olympe de Gouge was a writer, her most famous work being the Declaration of the Rights of Women and the female citizen. In it she criticized the revolution for forgetting the women. She demanded rights for women, including hinting at the right to vote and also promotes education. (Laura)

Great Fear - The Great Fear refers to the suspicions among peasants that nobles were hoarding grain in order to hinder the patriotic cause. In July of 1789 peasants in several regions began to attack nobles, burning their feudal documents, barns, and homes. To appease the peasants, the National Assembly passed the August 4th decrees in the same year. (Mackenzie)

-It’s important to note that the peasants rarely attacked the nobles themselves during this, but instead focused on razing the homes of nobles in an attempt to gain food. This rash action stemmed mainly from a fear among the peasantry that violence in Paris, like what they had seen with the storming of the Bastille a month earlier, would reduce the availability of grain and other food sources, which were already scarce for peasants. –Richmoney

Hundred Days (Napoleon)

Invasion of Russia (Napoleon) - (1812) – As usual, trying to invade Russia turned out to be a pivotal blunder. Nevertheless, Napoleon invaded on June 24, 1812 in order to uphold the Continental System, which the Russians were openly violating by 1811. Despite Napoleon’s Grand Army of over 600,000 men, the Russians managed to evade most military conflict by retreating deeper into the Russian interior and destroying everything in the countryside, which slowed the Imperial advance and drained Napoleon of his army’s essential provisions. Napoleon reached Moscow in September, but his army was already in no condition to take the capital. By October, when Napoleon finally decided to retreat, he was already doomed due to the infamous Russian winter (only 60,000 men made it out of Russia). The failed invasion attempt proved to be major turning point in the Napoleonic Wars and set Napoleon up for his first defeat in March 1814. (Chuma)

Jacobins -The radical revolutionary group during the French Revolution, led by Jean Jacques Rousseau. They played an instrumental role in the cascade of brutality and debatably unnecessary bloodshed when they took power around 1792 when the King told the people of France about his protection from a foreign duke. Before 1792, however, they served as mostly a fringe group that wielded little influence and endured many a cold shoulder from French people because of the radicalism of their doctrine. –Richmoney

Legislative Assembly - The Legislative Assembly was the renamed National Assembly after the creation of the French Constitution in 1791. It only lasted until 1792, when the radical National Convention took over. (Hannah)

Marat- A strong radical and supporter of Robespierre, Marat was a journalism who wrote about the Revolution. His ideas were as radical as they got supporting the revolution and a complete change of government. Suffering from a skin disease, he had to be in the bath constantly and many times he wrote there. He was murdered in the bath after given a list of new people against the revolution to publish. Sarah Tomlin

Marie Antoinette - Famous for the line, “Let them eat cake,” Marie Antoinette was the wife of King Louis XVI and Queen of France. She was executed during the time of the French Revolution following the death of her husband and King of France. The decision of whether or not to execute her was one of great debate, and ultimately became the decision of the Committee of Public Safety. She was charged with many things, the most important of which being the sexual abuse of her son. (Ricky)

Marquis de Lafayette -The French hero who fought with the Americans in the Revolutionary War. When he returned to France from his efforts to help the Americans, he was heralded as a truly enlightened leader whose devotion to freedom could help carry France forward. In other words, he was the pre-scandal General Petraeus of his time. -Richmoney


Napoleonic Code - Napoleon’s Civil Code (1804) was a complete re-write of the French legal system, which had in recent years become muddled with conflicting precedents. The code seemed to coincide in some ways with the major themes of the Revolution; in other ways, it was quite the opposite. The code protected the property rights of the middle class, eliminated privilege, established equality before the law (except for the Emperor, of course), and established freedom of religion. However, it also legalized torture, brought back slavery to the French colonies, and formally subjugated women to men in the home and on the political scene. The Code brought back stability as well as a respect for legal authority that had been missing in France in recent years, and its statutes were implemented everywhere Napoleon conquered. (Chuma)

National Assembly - The National Assembly (1789-91) was created by the Bourgeoisie at Versailles after Louis XVI refused to change the voting to by head instead of by estate and refused to reform. On June 17th, 1789 the third estate declared themselves the National Assembly and although they were still loyal to the King they wanted to transform the role of subjects to citizens. They created a Notebook of Grievances to the Kind and although it was a very polite and civilized form of revolution, on June 20th the National Assembly was locked out of the Estates General parlors at Versailles. So instead they met on the indoor tennis courts where they signed the Tennis Court Oath, declaring that the National Assembly would not disband until a constitution had been decided. I 1791 when a constitution had been decided upon the National Assembly became the Legislative Assembly. (Hannah)

National Convention

Necker, Jacques - Necker was a Swiss banker who served as Louis XVI’s financial minister after Jacques Turgot. To finance the costs of France’s aid to the British colonies in North America, Necker avoided new taxes and instead floated large loans at high interest rates. He also controlled court spending and was initially popular with both the king and the people. He publically published the budget, which became a bestseller among the people. But by the 1780s, France’s debt crisis was worsening. Necker had actually made the problem worse by continuing to spend. The king ousted him in 1787. (Mackenzie)

Reign of Terror - The cause of the majority of deaths during the French Revolution, the “Reign of Terror” served only to destroy the opposition to the revolutionary cause. This effort was headed by Maximilien Robespierre, and targeted refractory priests, emigres, hebertists, and anyone else who opposed the French Revolution. It was because of the “Reign of Terror” that many innocents also died. Additionally, the “Reign of Terror” brought about many great atrocities, like the drowning of incarcerated priests at Nantes and the innumerable executions as well. (Ricky)

Robespierre, Maximilian - (1758-1794) Leader of the Committee of Public Safety, around the time of the Revolution, Robespierre had been a provincial lawyer prior to the Revolution. He was also a deputy to the National Assembly and strong-willed advocate of greater democracy during the time period. He worked closely with the Paris Jacobin Club, and wished to control the sans-culottes. He was also the leader of the “Reign of Terror” in France during the Revolution, which he used to strictly enforce the laws that attempted to destroy the opposition to the revolutionary cause. (Ricky)

sans-culottes - The literal translation of sans-culottes was without pants. Culottes was a type of pants worn by upper class citizens, so the sans-culottes was the term for the common French people. This used to be a term of disdain used by aristocrats, but as the revolution progressed the masses adopted this term for themselves. It also became a death sentance to wear culottes as the revolution got more radical. The sans-culotte often had very radical ideas seeing as they were the poorest of France, fighting for the highest level of democracy. (Laura)

September Massacres - In 1792, Parisians, who feared the swelling number of prisoners in jails, invaded the prisons and set up “popular tribunals” to slaughter more than two thousand prisoners. Marat, who believed that these prisoners were counterrevolutionaries plotting their escape, provoked these massacres. (Mackenzie)

Storming of the Bastille - After the king dismissed Jacques Necker, Parisian crowds who were looking for ammunition sieged the Bastille, which was an old fortress that had served as a royal prison that stored gunpowder. The king’s troops resisted and killed dozens of citizens, who became some of the first martyrs of the Revolution. The angry Parisian crowd massacred several soldiers as they left the Bastille and soon proceeded to parade their heads through the streets. Overall, this insurrection both saved the National Assembly and gave the Revolution a much more popular dimension. (Mackenzie)


Tennis Court Oath - After declaring themselves the National Assembly three days earlier, the members of the third estate gathered on an indoor tennis court, since Louis XVI had locked the doors to their normal gathering place, on June 20, 1789. Here they pledged not to dissemble, and to gather whenever necessary until they had created a constitution. This constitution was completed two years later and upon its completion the National Assembly became the Legislative Assembly. (Laura)

Thermidorian Reaction - The Thermidorian Reaction were the events that ended the Reign of Terror and led Robespierre to be executed. On the 8th of Thermidor, Robespierre gave a speech that was critical of traitors, but didn't specify about whom he was speaking so the entire Convention felt threatened. A conflict ensued on the following day and Robespierre was shot, possibly by himself, in the jaw. He was sentenced to execution. After these events, the Directory was installed with its five man executive, but didn't prove to be a lasting solution as there was rampant inflation. (Shredz)

Here are my notes on the major turning points from the moderate to the radical phase of the revolution:
-Mr. Edwards

The Turning Points-  The Beginning of the Radical Revolution

1. June, 1791-  Flight to Varennes:  King and Family flee
King hoping to unite with emigres
King is abandoning his people
Moderates don't abandon hope yet… they still need him and don't want a Republic
Radicals like Jean-Paul Marat, newspaper man, former doctor, lived in sewers and contracted a skin disease
2. War, April 1792- Austria, Prussia
Radicals-  wanted to crush emigres and threats to Revolution
Losses early on give the Radicals more ammunition
Welcomed by radicals and conservatives
- conservatives hoped the Austrians would win restoring Louis’ full power
- 85% of officers in old French army had been nobles… how could they win
- major losses early on for the French
Sets up Brunswick Manifesto
3. Brunswick Manifesto and Storming of Tuileries Palace,  Aug, 1792
i. Duke of Brunswick (Prussian) warns that no harm should come to King or he'll open fresh can on Paris
ii. Louis XVI— he publishes the Manifesto, showing that he is relying on the protection of Prussians
iii. Parisians storm the Tuileries Palace, Aug 10— 600 guards killed, King flees, protected by Leg. Assembly,  ultimately sent to prison
1. King "suspended" by Nat'l Assembly
2. Parisians (sans-culottes create the Paris Commune… local gov’t run by people)
⁃ would vie for power with the National Convention
3. Effectively ended the monarchy-  Those Leg. Assembly members  that didn't flee voted to create the National Convention
4. Moderates had lost all credibility at this point
4. September Massacres:  Sept, 1792
i. Fearing the swelling numbers in the jails, and provoked by Marat…
ii. Three days of "popular tribunals" and slaughter in the prisons
5. Execution of the King:  Jan 21, 1793
i. Louis XVI (r.1774-1792)-  Citizen Capet
ii. Vote of 387-334 in Convention
1. Vote really splits the Girondin and the Jacobins
a. Girondin- not moderates, but unwilling to go as far as Jacobins
i. They want to push back against the sans-culottes
6. Vendee:  "Catholic and Royalist Army" rebels in Western France, 1793
i. In reaction to the “levee en masse”… many resisted conscription
ii. Convention sends in army— violent civil war crushing rebellion
iii. Class tensions between rural peasants and Parisian bourgeois Jacobins