French Revolution And Napoleon 1st Period

Key Terms: French Revolution and Napoleon

Abbe Sieyes Abbe Sieyes was an Abbot for the Catholic Church in France, and a member of the 1st Estate. He was progressively minded and a supporter of a tax on the other Estates besides the 3rd Estate. He is most notable for publishing the pamphlet “What is the 3rd Estate?” which addressed the problems that the 3rd Estate had in the Estates General and the fact that they paid all the direct taxes and made up 98% of the population. This book became a widely read and influential book on the revolution, although Sieyes never intended for a violent revolution. He is also one of the few people who survived the entirety of the revolution while maintaining a political presence most of the time. When asked what he did during the Reign of Terror he said “I survived.” Matt Borin

Alexander I of Russia (relations with Napoleon and Congress of Vienna) - Czar Alexander I was known for befriending, but later fighting Napoleon. He was part of the Big Four that finally defeated the Emperor. In the Congress of Vienna, his only selfish desire was that of obtaining Poland, but Russia was only given a small fraction of it. Ultimately, Alexander wanted to create a world based off justice and charity and was often mocked as a result. (Robert Jessell)

Alexander I was the emperor of Russia from 1801-1825. Like Robert mentioned above, he was a friend of Napoleon at the start of the Napoleonic Wars, but then ultimately turned around to defeat the ruler of France. After defeating Napoleon, he was apart of one of five countries present at the Congress in Vienna, a meeting held to restore conservatism back in Europe. Alexander was also a very conservative and religious man because he wished to spread christianity around Europe. Because he wanted to spread christianity, he formed the Holy Alliance, an alliance that was quite controversial with some of the other major powers in Europe.(Lauren Burton)

Battle of Nations (Leipzig) - a battle between the Prussian, Russian, Austrian, and Swedish armies and Napoleon on the 16 - 19 of October in 1813. It was fought in Leipzig, Saxony, and Napoleon's defeat ended his campaign through Germany quite decisively, another failure of his armies, along with the horrendous Russian Campaign. It involved over 600,000 soldiers, and was the largest battle in Europe up until WWI. (CarterW)

Battle of Nations (Leipzig): The Battle of Nations was fought by the allied Russians, Prussians, Austrians, and Swedish against Emperor Napoleon I’s French army in Leipzig, Saxony during October of 1813. Engaging over 600,000 soldiers, this was the largest battle in European history before World War I. Defeating Napoleon, the allied forces forced Napoleon’s retreat then invaded France, forcing Napoleon’s abdication as Emperor of France in 1813 and his exile to Elba in 1814. (Meaghan Shimota)

Battle of Trafalgar: (October 21st, 1805) A decisive naval battle of the Napoleonic Wars between the British and the French, aided by the Spanish, the battle was quite a sight—with the British destroying an astounding number of French and Spanish fleet. This engagement was the last chance Napoleon had to squelch the British, and despite his failure, the British remained wary of his grandiose plans for world domination, and maintained a blockade of French bases. —-TB

The Battle of Trafalgar: The Battle of Trafalgar was a major loss for the French army. The British defeated Napoleon and his army, but at the same time lost their leader, Admiral Horatio Nelson, during battle. While the French seemed strong, this defeat from the British was a blow to their confidence. After the loss, Napoleon came up with a plan B to defeat his enemies, the British. He initiated the Continental System in 1806 which called for the closure of all European ports to British ships. Because Napoleon could not conquer the British militarily, he decided to attempt to conquer them economically. (Lauren Burton)

Battle of Waterloo - This battle was fought on June 18, 1815 near Waterloo, then part of the Netherlands (present day Belgium). The Duke of Wellington and Gebhard von Blucher’s army comprised of Austrian, Prussian, Russian, Dutch, Belgian, and English troops defeated Napoleon’s army. This defeat marked the end of Napoleon’s “Hundred Days” return from exile, and ended his rule as Emperor of France. (Connor Haines)

Brumaire Coup - In November of 1799, Abbe Sieyes desired to overthrow the Directory that was the government of France. Specifically, he organized a Coup to overthrow Robespierre. He puts the bug in Napoleon’s ear that he would be a great ruler of France. Sieyes also claimed that the Neo Jacobins are super corrupt in order to gain support. He created a new government and set up a 3 Consulate system with Napoleon as the first Council because of his favorable reputation. This helped expand the popular support from the people for this change. The Second Council was Sieyes and the third was Roger Ducos. Sadly, Abbe Sieyes thought he could control Napoleon better than he did, and this gave rise to Napoleon becoming France’s next Emperor. (Ellie Sheild)

Cahiers - After Calonne's direct tax on the nobility had been shot down by the parlements, despite the absolute necessity of finding new streams of revenue to support the debt-ridden French government, Louis XVI had to find another way to possibly pass the new taxes. He thus called the Estates General, but he also invited citizens to Cahiers (Notebooks of Grievances), petitions setting forth their views and complaints. Ostensibly, Louis XVI seemed to care about what his people had to say, but he really just hoped to stir up popular support over the tax of the nobility in order to push forward its passage. However, this was an enormous political blunder. While the grievances in the Cahiers were generally not radical (mostly local problems and the request that votes be counted by head in the Estates), it raised expectations that the government would respond to what the people wanted, which had not been an issue before. People had never before been able to share their views, but now, when people see Louis XVI do nothing about them, they grow discontented. -DavisHeniford

Civil Constitution of the Clergy, 1790 - The Civil Constitution on the Clergy made all Priests choose whether or not swear allegiance to the new National Assembly. This had to be done in order to practice legal Catholicism in the State, and 54% of Priests took this oath. Also, Bishops were now named by local assemblies. The direct problem with the Civil Constitution was that by attacking religion, it made people torn between choosing the state and choosing to support their refractory Priest. The refractory movement was largest in Western France and this Constitution was the beginning of the anti-revolution. (Ellie Sheild).

Concordat of 1801 - With this Concordat between Napoleon and Pope Pius VII occured, the Royals and the Jacobins were finally brought together. Napoleon ended what seemed to be the biggest problem of this age, because of the religious divisions in France. Many Royals wanted to bring the King back to the throne only because it would legalize Catholicism. The Concordat stated that Catholicism was the "religion of the majority of the citizens", meaning it was the preferred religion, but not the official one. Catholicism was no longer persecuted by the State. The Church did not get their seized lands back, but it was the end of the Revolutionary Calendar. Overall The Church had less autonomy, and Napoleon pleased both sides. (Ellie Sheild)

Condorcet, Marquis de - Marquis de Condorcet (1743-1794) was a French philosopher and mathematician, who died in prison as prisoner of French Revolutionary authorities. In mathematics he is most remembered for the Condorcet voting method (I’m sure Ms. Webb-G. would be happy to tell you all about it if you ask). As a philosopher, his ideas embody the ideals of the enlightenment era, and include a belief in a liberal economy, public education (he advocated educational reform), and equal rights for women. (Connor Haines)

Congress of Vienna: From November 1814 to June 1815, the Congress of Vienna was held in Vienna, Austria. Led by Klemens von Metternich, the group of European representatives from various states sought to put to rest the issues that arose due to the French Revolution, Napoleonic Wars, and the end of the Holy Roman Empire. The Congress’ main goal was to restore the Balance of Power within Europe. This is sometimes referred to as “the Humpty Dumpty Congress where all of the kings’ horses and all of the kings’ men tried to Europe together again.” (Meaghan Shimota)

The Congress of Vienna began in 1814 when Napoleon was still exiled at Elba as a means to bring conservatism back to Europe. The Congress was stopped during Napoleons 100 days campaign but was ultimately reconvened after France's loss in the Battle of Waterloo. Because Europe had "fallen" apart during the Napoleonic Wars, the Congress of Vienna was a meeting to put conservatism back on top. Several important leaders were present at the congress such as the leader and Austrian Foreign Minister, Klemons von Metternick, Lord Castlereagh of England, Tsar Alexander I of Russia, Prussia, and Prince Tallyrand from France. The four main goals of the Congress were to redistribute territories that were disrupted during the Napoleonic Wars, restore the Balance of Power, assert the dominance of conservative monarchies, and stop liberalism from spreading in Europe. (Lauren Burton)

Consulate - In November 1799, Abbe Sieyes orchestrated the Brumaire Coup. He told the Convention that there was a neo-Jacobin plot afoot and that a new government was necessary. The Convention duly voted for a new government, the three-man Consulate. Sieyes put himself as Second Consul behind the First Consul, the popular young military officer Napoleon, whom Sieyes thought he could control. The Third Consul was Roger Ducos, who matters not at all. The Consulate government ended because Napoleon, power-hungry and obviously not under Sieyes's control after all, demanded first that he be Consul for Life (1802 plebiscite) and then that he be Emperor (1804 plebiscite). (Jane Wester)

Continental System: Napoleon attempted to grab the one exception to his ever-growing expanse, England, in the Battle of Trafalgar in 1805. However, this victory for England confirmed its rule of the oceans, and led Napoleon to turn to his Plan B: the Continental System. Napoleon hoped this would crush England economically. In this system, begun in 1806, an embargo of trade was established against the British by cutting off all European ports to English ships. Although the English owned the seas, Napoleon had conquered most of the ports around Europe. However, this plan failed miserably, with rampant smuggling undermining Napoleon’s plan. As the British responded with a similar law and America caught in the middle of the awkward tension, the result was the War of 1812. (KatieMayo)

Napoleon's continental system illustrated two flaws within Napoleon's thinking/leadership. First, Napoleon's sincere belief the conquered/defeated territories would willingly aquiesce to his plan illustrated a bit of hubris on Napoleon's part, especially with regards to Russia. For the continental system to be effective, there would need to be a unified front to completely plot off British economic access to the main continent. Lacking the power to completely control the conquered/defeated territories, Napoleon welcomed the opportunity for vengeful territories to spite him through violating the continental system. This was exactly what happened with Russia(and really the whole continental system) as the lack of unification made it completely effective. The second lapse in thought derived from flawed interpretation of English ingenuity. Believing all to be inferior to him, Napoleon underestimated the resources of the English thus leading to the ineffectiveness of his continental system.-David Farrow

Corday, Charlotte: (1768-1793) Exposed early on to the writings of Voltaire, and Rousseau, Corday was no fool. When the French Revolution started to move away from the ideals articulated by the great thinkers who inspired it, Corday started to worry. All around her she saw people in panic, as fear turned one neighbor against another. At this point, Corday started to follow the Girondin, the moderates repudiating the views of the all-powerful Jacobins. A witness to the September Massacres, Corday saw Jean-Paul Marat as a threat to social stability for his publishing of enemy lists in his highly-circulated newspaper, “L’Ami du Peuple”. On July 13th, 1793 Corday arrived at Marat’s home, claiming that she had a list naming enemies of the state, instead the most striking thing she bore was her knife (haaaa)—right into Marat’s chest. At trial she said, “I killed one man to save 100,000”, the same words Robespierre spoke before Louis XVI’s execution. Jacques-Louis David depicted Marat after he was murdered by Corday, likening his arm to that of Jesus in Michelangelo’s Pieta. The murder was also depicted by Paul-Jacques-Aimé Baudry’s “Charlotte Corday” with Corday standing in the corner, glancing at Marat after killing him. Fun fact: her parents were cousins (..yikes) —-TB

Danton, Georges:Danton was a famed orator of the Reign of Terror. Whenever there was public opposition to something Robespierre proposed, Danton wrote and gave a speech about. His speeches were so legendary that it was said that he could convince anyone of anything. For this reason he was Robespierre’s right-hand man for most of the Reign of Terror. However, as Robespierre began to become even more suspicious and evil, he had Hebert killed. (Caroline Beuley)

David, Jacques Louis: (1748-1825): Neoclassical painter famed for his masterpieces of Napoleon, which doubled as propaganda. Some of his pieces conveyed his neoclassical style more than others, saturating The Death of Socrates and The Oath of Horatii with classical themes conveyed via style of dress and architecture. David’s style was inspired by the Enlightenment, and the later French Revolution, which he supported; the concurrence of the two (David and French Revolution suggests that he advocates this return to self-contemplation, inspiring greater appreciation for reason than the excesses of the Rococo. His best/most famous pieces of Napoleon include The Coronation of Napoleon, in which he becomes Emperor, and Napoleon at the Saint Bernard. Fun fact: his father was killed in a duel (YOLO). —-TB

Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen - The Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen was drafted by Emmanuel Sieyes and was adopted by France’s National Assembly between August 20 and August 26, 1789. This document later served as the preamble to France’s Constitution of 1791. This document reflects the ideas of the Enlightenment, and guarantees certain natural and inalienable rights including the rights to “liberty, property, security, and resistance to oppression.” (Connor Haines)

Directory: Following the Thermidorian Reaction, a new government called the Directory was formed in hopes of finally constructing a governing body of stability and tranquility. This five-man executive branch, however, was inefficient and thus resulted in less upheaval and less dramatic change. With this inefficiency came an inability to find stable middle ground and the new government was often plagued with coups and purges. The Directory was a direct reflection of the split country: Royalists v. Neo-Jacobins. (KatieMayo)

Between 1795-1799, the Directory was the form of government that oversaw France. Each of the five Directors were given a lot of power but were trusted not to abuse it, as new Directors with minister or deputy experience were appointed every year. The French economy did recover from the Reign of Terror, but a lot of corruption brought it to a close. (Robert Jessell)

Duke of Wellington - 1769-1852, the Duke, aka Arthur Wellesley, was an English general who defeated Napoleon's armies twice, at the Battle of Vitoria in 1813, then again after Napoleon's return from exile at Waterloo in 1815. (CarterW)

Duke of Wellington: Arthur Wellesley, the Duke of Wellington, (1769-1852) served in the British military, most notably in the Peninsular Wars in Spain against Napoleon. After helping to defeat Napoleon for the first time in 1813 (Napoleon exiled to Elba in 1814), he again led the British, who were allied with the Prussian, Russian, Austrian, Dutch, and Belgian forces, to defeat Napoleon at the Battle of Waterloo in 1815. The Duke of Wellington was killed in action during the Battle of Waterloo, dying as Commander-In-Chief of the British Army. In addition, he served as the prime minister in England twice. (Meaghan Shimota)

Estates General The Estates General was the French parallel to the English Parliament. It was make up of three Estates, the 1st, or Clergy, which represented about 100,000 people, the 2nd, or Nobility, which represented about 400,000 people, and the 3rd, made up of all others including Bourgeoisie, Urban Workers, and Peasants, and represented roughly 24.5 million people. The 2nd Estate was made up of the Nobility of the Sword and the Nobility of the Robe. Votes in the Estates General were conducted by state, so the majority vote of each state decided which way the state voted, and majority (at least 2 out of 3) vote won. This meant that the 3rd Estate could never get a bill passed that in any way detracted from the power of the first two Estates, as they teamed up against the 3rd. The only hope for them passing a bill was a vote by representative, not by state. Louis XVI seemed to be in favor of this switch in the voting system, but then publicly said he would never support it. This results in the 3rd Estate and select members of the other Estates forming the National Assembly on June 17th, 1789. MATT BORIN

Girondins - At the foundation of the French Republic, two radical groups competed for political superiority, the Jacobins and the Girondins. The Girondins, however, were not quite as radical as their Jacobin counterparts. The question of killing Louis XVI split the convention between these two groups. While all agreed that he had committed treason, the Jacobins believed he should be killed, while the Girondins believed he should be spared. The vote ended up falling in the Jacobins' favor, 387-334. As the Jacobin radicals gained power, and leaders of Girondins increasingly conflicted with the tyrannical policies of the Jacobins and the actions of the sans-culottes, leaders of the sans-culottes and Jacobins urged that the Girondins be purged from the Convention. The execution of these Girondins leaders in June, 1793, showed that the Jacobins would now tolerate no dissent, further radicalized the Convention, and foreshadowed the upcoming violence of the reign of terror. -DavisHeniford

Gouge, Olympe de: (1748-1793) both a playwright and a political activist, de Gouges was forward-thinking, ultimately leading to her demise in the midst of the Reign of Terror. She penned the “Declaration of the Rights of Woman” in 1791, as well as several pamphlets defending human rights, namely those of women, slaves, and illegitimate children; she even opposed Louis XVI’s execution due to her positions on capital punishment. She was a regular in the Salons, making friends with influential writers, and socialites; however, many of her works were rejected by the Comédie Française for being too radical. She was arrested for making a poster after many of her Girondin friends were sent to the guillotine; she wasn’t too far behind them, executed by the guillotine on November 3rd, 1793. Fun fact: she wanted desperately to be an aristocrat. —-TB

Great Fear - In late July and August 1789, the peasants thought that the nobles might be hoarding grain, which had become a valuable commodity after two years of poor harvests. The peasants attacked the nobles' homes, often breaking in, finding the noble documents that bound the peasants to the land, and burning them. Though outright murder was not widespread, nobles did not consider themselves safe anywhere in France. The Revolution began with the bourgeoisie at Versailles, spread to the urban working class with the storming of the Bastille, and finally reached the peasants in the Great Fear. (Jane Wester)

Nobles were deadly afraid of the attacking peasants who needed grain, and what became known as the Great Fear turned out to be one of the biggest causes of the Revolution. The aristocratic conspiracy by the King was apparently meant to overthrow the Third Estate, but the peasants would have none of it. Some would argue that the Great Fear accumulated in the storming of the Bastille. Even though the nobles were most certaintly innocent, the fact that peasants were rebelling spelled trouble for the priveleged. (Robert Jessell)

Hundred Days (Napoleon) - the period from March 20, 1815, when Napoleon returned from exile in Elbe, to July 8, 1815, when King Louis XVIII was permanently restored as the King of France. This covers the declaration of Napoleon as an outlaw by the Congress of Vienna, then the subsequent Battle of Waterloo, in which Napoleon was finally defeated. When the monarchy was restored, Napoleon was permanently exiled to the island of Saint Helena.

Hundred Days (Napoleon): Lasting from March 20, 1815 to July 8, 1815, Napoleon’s Hundred Days campaign was his escape from exile in Elba, return too Paris and takeover of France (despite the restoration of King Louis XVIII), and military conquest that ended with his defeat at the Battle of Waterloo by forces led by the Duke of Wellington. Although escaping from Elba on February 26, 1815, his march on Paris on March 20 officially began his ill-fated military campaign. On March 25, members of the Seventh Coalition (England, Russia, Austria, Prussia) allied against Emperor Napoleon I of France. With his defeat by the Seventh Coalition at the Battle of Waterloo on July 8, 1815, Napoleon was exiled yet again, this time to the island of Saint Helena where he would die in 1821. (Meaghan Shimota)

Invasion of Russia (Napoleon) - The Invasion occurred in 1812. Napoleon created the largest army in the history of Europe which consisted of 600,000 men and was called the Grand Army. The unfortunate thing for Napoleon was that the Russians came in and burned their land and cities before retreating farther into Russia. This drew the French further and further into Russia because they lacked basic supplies, food, and shelter. The Battle of Borodino was the bloodiest battle ever with 68,000 men killed or wounded, but it ended in a draw and did not entirely destroy the French Army. Napoleon’s army arrivied in Moscow in September 1812, but it was already torched by the Russians. The torching method worked and the French retreated from Moscow. Guerilla type warfare was inflicted on his troops on the way out and the defeat of the French had major direct effects on the downfall of Napoleon. (Ellie Sheild)

Jacobins - the Jacobins were the radicals of the revolution, epitomized by Robespierre and Marat. The Jacobin faction was made distinct after the vote in the convention to kill the king. Out of the Jacobins was the mountain, the group of jacobin leaders who sat in the loft style thing in the convention. The Jacobins believed that the revolution needed to continue, praised the sans-cullotes (poor folk), and were very popular. The jacobins became less radical after the death of Robespierre and the public safety. louis stephens

Legislative Assembly - The Legislative Assembly was governing body of the moderate government following the Constitution of 1791. The governing body was called the National Assembly from 1789 until the Constitution of 1791, and then was called the Legislative Assembly until the radicals came to power in 1792. The radicals called their new government the National Convention. (Jane Wester)

Marat: Marat was a radical Jacobin who was first noticed when he advocated strongly in favor of the execution of the thing. Afterwards Marat really stepped into the forefront of the revolutionary movement as the link between the sans-culotte and the Jacobins. He was a journalist who was most known for publishing lists of people whom he thought should be killed because they were interfering with the revolution. He had a horrible skin condition and was known to take frequent baths to alleviate the discomfort the condition caused. One night when he was taking one of these baths, Charlotte Cordee, a women outraged by his death lists, came in and murdered him in the bath tub. (CarolineBeuley)

Following the his death, Marat became an important symbolic figure to convey the struggles of the revolutionaries. Specifically through Jacques-Louis David's painting "The Death of Marat", the jacobin leadership was able to profit from Marat's death by illustrating the "constant" threat posed against the revolution. The painting itself conveys the martyrdom of Marat for the revolution by using imagery similar to Jesus in Michelangelo's "Pieta" sculture. The quickness of the jacobins to use one of their friend's death for political purposes also illustrates their power hungry nature as, instead of respecting death, they only think of how to gain from Marat's death.-David Farrow

Marie Antoinette - Marie was Louis XVI's wife and represented everything hated by the revolution. She was pomp, rich, part of the monarchy, and supposedly said "let the eat cake" (she didn't really) during the break crisis, making the gneral population loath her. She was guillotined, and unlike Louis, rode in an open cart. During the storming of versailles, she was almost killed by the fish women…. but escaped. Louis Stephens

The importance of Marie Antoinette's "let them eat cake" statement derives from the willingness of the French population to believe that she actually said the words. The belief that Marie Antoinette was so disconnected from the problems of the French thus illustrates how hated the monarchy was and how little faith the average person had. By willingly accepting untruth and further acting upon said untruth, the populations illustrates almost a mousetrap like potency for actions. In the end, it didn't really matter whether the statement was spoken, as the French simply needed a reason to further rebel against the monarchy. The statement proved an adequate stimuli for the storming of the royal palace and the expansion of anti-monarchial effort, with the ability for it to act as a justification showing the underlying resentment for the monarchy.-David Farrow

Marquis de Lafayette - Born into the nobility, Lafayette ended up working for the Court and eventually, the King. In terms of the American Revolution, Lafayette was an ally of George Washington and played a large role in victories like Yorktown. He joined the National Assembly later in his tenure as a politician. However, the downfall of the King brought down the nobleman as well, and he had to flee France after being condemned by Robespierre to be a traitor of the revolution. (Robert Jessell)

Metternich - 1773-1859, the Austrian politician and statesman who served as Foreign Minister of both the HRE and the successive Austrian Empire. He attempted to approach France peacefully, marrying the Arch Duchess of Austria to Napoleon, however he soon after joined the Allied forces against Napoleon, and in 1814 signed the Treaty of Fontainebleau that ended Napoleon's rule as Emperor and sent him into exile on Elba. (CarterW)

Metternich was a key player in the defeat of Napoleon and the rise of conservatism with the Congress of Vienna following the war. As Austrian's dynamic Foreign Minister, he helped restore Austria's position as a leading power in Europe. By calling the Congress of Vienna, he enabled Europe to bring back the conservatism it had lost through the French Revolution and the Napoleonic Wars. He was a very conservative politician that was quite dominant in European affairs until his decline in 1848. (Lauren Burton)

Napoleonic Code: Written in 1804, the Napoleonic code was a necessary replacement for the previous legal system that was a “hodgepodge” (in the words of Chedwards) of laws from all sorts of governments. This civil code was the greatest non-violent revolutionary act; however, it did not put Napoleon on a pedestal as the forerunner of democracy. In this list of laws, Napoleon protected the rights of the middle class property owners, those with other religions, and all people before the law. However, Napoleon was also a traitor to the ideas of the Revolution as he legalized torture, returned slavery to the colonies, and put himself above the law. This list was also unprogressive in regards to women’s rights with his ascertain of patriarchal authority and second-class citizenship for females. (KatieMayo)

The Napoleonic Code serves as the lasting remnant of Napoleon's rule. More so than the institution of the metric system, the legal reforms instituted planted the seeds for future liberal revolts within Europe. In essence, the Napoleonic Code provided a contrary option to the monarchical/despot rule that typically dominated European, with this contrary option then inspiring future revolutionaries to attempt to either reform or completely overthrow their conservative monarchs. Speaking of conservatives, the Napoleonic Code and spread of democratic principles startled conservatives leading to the conservative backlash during the Congress of Vienna. Thus, in order to counter Napoleon's liberal reforms, leaders like Metternich and Alexander 1 worked to rollback conservative power, negativing many of the reforms and democratic values Napoleon attempted to establish.-David Farrow

National Assembly The National Assembly was formed on June 17th, 1789 when the King publicly speaks out against a representative vote in the Estates General rather than a vote by estate. This apparently contradicted his previous actions, although he had never explicitly said that he wanted a representative vote. After this the 3rd Estate met and declared themselves the National Assembly, the sovereign government of France. Non-violent. King obviously denies that the National Assembly has an y rights, as they are illegal and treasonous, and locks them out of their meeting place. This results in the Tennis Court Oath, which occurs on June 20, 1789. They met on a tennis court because no other place was big enough. Consisted of the 3rd Estate and some more progressive minded members of other Estates. Drafted by Abbe Sieyes, a member of the 1st Estate. Says that the Assembly will meet no matter what until they have drafted a new constitution for France, which takes several years. As a result of this the King made some reforms, such as abolishing the Corvee, or forced unpaid labor if a peasant was unable to pay their taxes. Alas, too little too late. MATT BORIN

National Convention - 1792-1795, n.c. was an executive committee of elected officials, although it was tainted by the committee of public safety (93-94). The Convention followed the National Assembly, and would later be replaced by the Directory. the Assembly was split into the Girondins and Jacobins, (moderates and radicals respectively). The split occurred after the vote about the death of Louis XVI. The most powerful of the Jacobins and therefore the convention / revolution sat in the 'mountain,' which was an elevated seating area. The convention ultimately represented the ideas of the revolution because of its democratic / republic nature. Louis Stephens

Necker, Jacques - A famous Swiss banker, Louis XVI appointed him as finance minister in 1776, at the height of the French economic crisis. Unlike Turgot, he argued that France really did not need reform to steer clear of the debt problem (it's not as bad as you think!), and instead argued in favor of reducing court spending (which, while important, did not help much by itself). He also continued to borrow more and more money to prevent the bankruptcy of the government, which had the unfortunate consequence of miring France in even more debt. While his policies were almost entirely counterproductive, he became popular with the people of France due to the fact that he published the French budget for the first time, promoting the Enlightenment concept of government accountability. He was revolved in and out of his position and was ousted for the second time in 1787. -DavisHeniford

Reign of Terror: The Reign of Terror, spanning only a year from 1793-1794, was the time when the radical left, under the leadership of Robespierre, ruled France. They established first the national convention, but later Robespierre reduced this to a 12 man committee of public safety. Which, since it was led by him, effectively made him supreme ruler of France. The ideas supposedly espoused during the reign of terror were Liberte, Egalite, and Fraternite. However, this more said than actually done because the reign of terror was essentially a time in which liberty, equality, and brotherhood vanished from France. While the poor rose up against the rich and the class war escalated, no one was safe. Radicals like Marat, Danton, and Hebert fought for things such as excessive violence, murdering of the opposition, and antichristianization of France. There were no longer ostentatious displays of wealth, the political opposition, the Girondins, were beheaded daily, and Sunday was eradicated through introduction of a 10 day calendar. (Caroline Beuley)

Robespierre, Maximilian - Maximilien Robespierre (1758-1794) was a leader of the Jacobin Club and the most influential member (some say outright leader) of the Committee of Public Safety during the Reign of Terror. His allies knew him as “The Incorruptible” but his enemies called him “Bloodthirsty Dictator.” In 1794 he was overthrown and executed as part of the Thermidorian Reaction. (Connor Haines)

sans-culottes:Sans-culotte in French means without pants. This name was given to the urban workers and later expanded to apply to the poor of France because they did not wear the flashy bloomer pants that characterized the bourgeoisie. This group was especially important to the Jacobin cause, and they were able to control them somewhat bc of Marat. However, the sans-culottes were also some of the most violent of the revolution and were the perpetrators of horrible acts of violence once they began their involvement in the revolution. (carolinbeuley)

September Massacres - In August, 1792, as Paris became more and more a bastion for radical thought, the jails of the city began to overflow with both political prisoners and regular criminals. Radical and influential Parisians, such as Marat, began to fear a counterrevolutionary plot to open the prisons. In September, this fear exploded in the September Massacres, in which the people of Paris stormed the prisons, "set up popular tribunals," and took the law into their own hands, killing thousands of prisoners during a three day period. The government did not intervene to halt the bloodshed. This further contributed to the radicalization of the French regime. -DavisHeniford

Storming of the Bastille - July 14 1789 —> represented the general public's agreement with the tennis court oath and national assembly that was created just a month before. The storming of the Bastille was the first violent flash of the revolution (guards killed, heads put on pikes), and a hint at what would later come (terror, etc). the Bastille was later dismantled piece by piece, for it represented everything the revolution hated (monarchy, absolutism, nobility). the bastille also was an armory, so raiding it was important militaristically. Louis stephens

Tallyrand - Tallyrand initiated reforms in the Catholic Church (which was practically another branch of the monarchy). He led the moderate government to seize church lands and sell them to the bourgeosie, who were then grateful and loyal to the government. Ten percent of all the land in France was auctioned off - the Church had been very powerful. This made the government so wealthy that it created a new form of paper money, the assignat, which was backed by money from the sale of church lands. Tallyrand was himself a bishop, which shows that even members of the clergy saw the need to weaken and modernize the church. (Jane Wester)

Tennis Court Oath The Tennis Court Oath was a pledge signed on June 20, 1798 on a tennis court at Versailles. The reason for this unlikely setting was that the 3rd Estate, calling themselves the National Assembly, was locked out of their meeting place. They reconvened on the tennis court and made a solemn oath to continue to meet no matter what until they had drafted a new constitution for France. Select members of the 1st and 2nd Estates were also present. MATT BORIN
1789* Louis Stephens

Thermidorian Reaction: In Year Two of the new French republic, a backlash against Robespierre’s rampant violence brought down the Jacobin regime and instated a new government group, the Directory. Military victories abroad and a fairly successful purging of domestic enemies convinced the people of France that terror was not necessary anymore. Government representatives shouted down Robespierre in the Convention and executed him on July 27, 1794. Looking for stability and moderation, the French people would be disappointed by the unstable Directory that was to follow. (KatieMayo)

Here are my notes on the major turning points from the moderate to the radical phase of the revolution:
-Mr. Edwards

The Turning Points-  The Beginning of the Radical Revolution
1. June, 1791- Flight to Varennes:  King and Family flee
King hoping to unite with emigres
King is abandoning his people
Moderates don't abandon hope yet… they still need him and don't want a Republic
Radicals like Jean-Paul Marat, newspaper man, former doctor, lived in sewers and contracted a skin disease
2. War, April 1792- Austria, Prussia
Radicals-  wanted to crush emigres and threats to Revolution
Losses early on give the Radicals more ammunition
Welcomed by radicals and conservatives
- conservatives hoped the Austrians would win restoring Louis’ full power
- 85% of officers in old French army had been nobles… how could they win
- major losses early on for the French
Sets up Brunswick Manifesto
3. Brunswick Manifesto and Storming of Tuileries Palace,  Aug, 1792
i. Duke of Brunswick (Prussian) warns that no harm should come to King or he'll open fresh can on Paris
ii. Louis XVI— he publishes the Manifesto, showing that he is relying on the protection of Prussians
iii. Parisians storm the Tuileries Palace, Aug 10— 600 guards killed, King flees, protected by Leg. Assembly,  ultimately sent to prison
1. King "suspended" by Nat'l Assembly
2. Parisians (sans-culottes create the Paris Commune… local gov’t run by people)
⁃ would vie for power with the National Convention
3. Effectively ended the monarchy-  Those Leg. Assembly members  that didn't flee voted to create the National Convention
4. Moderates had lost all credibility at this point
4. September Massacres:  Sept, 1792
i. Fearing the swelling numbers in the jails, and provoked by Marat…
ii. Three days of "popular tribunals" and slaughter in the prisons
5. Execution of the King:  Jan 21, 1793
i. Louis XVI (r.1774-1792)-  Citizen Capet
ii. Vote of 387-334 in Convention
1. Vote really splits the Girondin and the Jacobins
a. Girondin- not moderates, but unwilling to go as far as Jacobins
i. They want to push back against the sans-culottes
6. Vendee:  "Catholic and Royalist Army" rebels in Western France, 1793
i. In reaction to the “levee en masse”… many resisted conscription
ii. Convention sends in army— violent civil war crushing rebellion
iii. Class tensions between rural peasants and Parisian bourgeois Jacobins