Europe Today 1st Period


Ceausescu, Nicolae
Commonwealth of Independent States
détente: detente was a policy of lessening tensions between the USSR and the U.S. This began when Kruschev was thrown out by Brezhnev. (Beuler)

European Coal and Steel Community - The ECSC was established in 1952 to integrate the coal and steel industries of Western Europe. The original members were France, West Germany, Italy, and BeNeLux. This was an important step towards the creation of the EC and later the EU. (Connor Haines)

European Economic Community
“Fortress Europe” (anti-immigration policies in Europe)

glastnost - Glasnost was a soviet policy under Mikhail Gorbachev in the late 1980s which encouraged the open discussion of political and social issues. This policy is a large part of the reason Gorbachev did not interfere with revolutions in Eastern Europe that overthrew many communist regimes during the late 1980s. (Connor Haines)

Helsinki Accords -This took place in 1975 as a part of the Détente Conference. Two key outcomes were discussed here. The first was that the USA recognized Soviet control over Eastern Europe and the second was that the USSR pledged to protect human rights of those within their sphere of influence. The Helsinki watch groups were people whose job it was to go in the USSR see, observe, and publish what was actually happening (serving to keep the USSR in check). Although initially this seemed like a weak and terrible agreement, the watch groups forced the USSR to open up and allowed the world to see the communist gap between rhetoric and reality. This was a huge boost to the dissident movement and threw gasoline on the fire. (Ellie Sheild)
Honecker, Erich
John Paul II

Maastricht Treaty - On February 7, 1992, the signing of the Maastricht Treaty was meant to cover economic, foreign, and home affairs in the essential formation of the European Union. The European Union was meant to improve the effectiveness of each individual country by creating a community atmosphere. Expansion of democracy was also a big part of the European Union, and the treaty is considered to be a Treaty of Rome extension. (Robert Jessell)

Milosevic, Slobodan
perestroika -This word means "restructuring" and it is the process of political and economic reorganization in Russia. The central planning, according to Gorby, did not work because of the lack of initiative that became so widespread. It was agreed that the government needed material incentives to get workers to do their jobs well. Thus, Perestroika dealt out a limited amount of privatization, which allowed state companies to sell goods in the open market. Gorby even allowed non-communists to run for election in Congress as People’s Deputies (a huge step). Sadly, as the state released some of its control, incredible shortages became widespread and the Russian economy tanks. Although the personal freedoms were increasing, the economy went from bad to terrible and Gorby became the most hated man in the USSR.(Ellie Sheild)

Putin, Vladimir - Ironically a former KGB member, Putin was made President of Russia in 1999 and became the Prime Minister in 2008 visiting Israel along the way. In 2012, he was reelected as President and is considered to be very popular amongst Russians as a whole. (Robert Jessell)

Reunification of Germany

SALT I: This means Strategic Arms Limitation Talks. It was a series of "talks" between the U.S. and the USSR to negotiate an anti ballistic missile treaty. Basically it was a crucial part of detente because it was a concerted effort on the side of both nations to bring an end to the arms race and limit the amount of nuclear weaponry in the world. (Beuler)

S.D.I. (aka “Star Wars”)
Walesa, Lech
Thatcher, Margaret
Vatican II (Second Vatican Council)
Velvet Revolution
Havel, Vaclav
World Trade Organization
Yeltsin, Boris