Early 19th Century 7th Period

Key Terms: Early Nineteenth Century
Modern European History

Bentham, Jeremy Jeremy Bentham was an English philosophe who emphasized the role of the state in guaranteeing individual freedom. In contrast to most philosophes, he rejected the doctrine of natural rights and replaced it with utilitarianism. He measured utility according to what brought the greatest good to the greatest number and defined good as anything that avoids pain and gives pleasure. In his system, it was the state’s task to promote the good by penalizing undesirable actions and rewarding socially beneficial behavior. Bentham’s followers, called philosophic radicals or Benthamites, adopted many, but not all, of his doctrines, and by Bentham’s death in 1832, they were among the most important British reformers of Parliament. -Grace

Carlsbad Decrees - Prussia and Austria jointly issued this after a liberal student murdered his conservative teacher as a response and discouragement to any kind of radical liberal activity. The Carlsbad Decrees put a ban on fraternities, called for harsher and more strict censorship, and created blacklists of any suspected liberals or opponents of conservatism. ~Ashley

These states now had the power to crush liberalism in their respective nations. Progressive advancement was stagnated for quite some time due to this, and Germany would not catch up to England in industrialization for decades. Metternich's Austria saw little liberal movements because of the fear of persecution. - Hayes

Chartists – The Chartists were advocated for working class benefits in England. They sought after working class reforms by getting signatures on petitions. Although their attempts technically failed, the way in which they went about trying to make change highlights the difference between England and other countries in Europe, specifically France. The English have such confidence in their government that they merely sign petitions to make change, while the French must violently take to the streets. - Erin

Comte, Auguste-A French philosopher and founder of the discipline of sociology and doctrine of positivism. He wrote "Religion of Humanity," which contributed to the development of religious and secular humanist organizations. Coined the term "altruism." Kristen.

Comte was not well known during his time and often takes a back seat in modern times despite the impossibly large influence he had on the other thinkers of his age. Comte developed many of his ideas from Henri Saint Simon, a well known utopian socialist credited for his idea of creating an elite council to control and maintain the economy. One of Comte's most influential ideas was social evolutionism, which he derived after recognizing and studying the deterioration of France during the French Revolution. This idea shows up in anthropology today and is heavily alluded to in works by philosophers like Karl Marx and John Stuart Mill. -RORY

positivism- A scientific philosophy based on the idea that in social and natural sciences, sensory experiences and the logical and mathematical treatments of such experiences are the source of all knowledge. It assumes that scientific knowledge is the only source of truth and that society operates according to general laws, much like the physical world acts according to gravity and other absolute laws of nature. kristen.

Corn Laws (1815, 1828) These laws placed tariffs on the import of wheat, and were supported by the Tories because they eliminated competition. However, due to the Irish Potato Famine and a series of bad harvests in general, demands for repeal of the corn laws began to grow, and eventually, Prime Minister Robert Peel (Tory) had an emotional epiphany that caused him to change his mind about the Corn Laws. They were repealed in 1846, fueling the people's faith that the government indeed had the people's best interests at heart. —Connie

-Sir Robert Peel- the Tory prime minister of England whose experienced a "moral epiphany" upon visiting Ireland. He saw the poverty and unrest there, and came to the conclusion that the Corn Laws must be repealed in order to help the impoverished classes. However, in an attempt to help the poor, he lost the support of his party. Luckily, the laws were repealed due to his support from Whigs, but on the day the laws were repealed, he lost his position as Prime Minister. Though he sacrificed his political career, Peel proved to the people that the government cared even for the lowest classes, and was willing to work in their favor. -Alexis

Communist Manifesto Communist Manifesto, written by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels, outlines Marx’s theory of history and was published just before the revolutions of 1848. At first, it received little attention, but it proved to be one of the greatest pieces of propaganda of all time, advertising a new philosophy of history and calling people to action. In his Communist Manifesto and Das Kapital, Marx argued that political systems originate from material, economic conflict, and in each system the dominant social class owns the means of production while the “have-nots” are isolated from it. He envisioned a classless society as the synthesis or result of a final struggle between the “haves” and the “have-nots.” -Grace

Crystal Palace Exhibition of 1851- The Crystal Palace Exhibition of 1851 or just the Great Exhibition of 1851 took place during the Victorian Age of England and became somewhat of a symbol of England’s superior industrialism as well as the world’s first World Fair of sorts. Queen Victoria’s husband, Prince Albert, came up with this idea to create a “living picture of progress”. Many countries were invited and there were over 100,000 exhibits, mostly British. Russians brought raw materials, Austrians brought fine arts, Prussians brought guns (Krupp corporation), and Americans were also present adding the colt revolver to the mix. The British displayed their manufactured goods and machinery such as a high-power printing press and a 60 mph locomotive. The Exhibition celebrated free trade as countries were encouraged to recognize each other’s strengths in terms of goods and a general broadening the international market. The Exhibition also included an element of class tension or the lack thereof as rich and poor mingled and few days were lower-priced entry to benefit the lower class. Not to mention, the crystal palace itself was a masterpiece. -Becca

cult of domesticity-A value system among upper and middle class women of the United States and Great Britain that taught that women should make their homes into domestic sanctuaries for their husbands and children and be nurturing mothers, loving wives, and overall submissive, feminine, delicate, virtuous creatures. kristen

The cult of domesticity was a commonly held belief during the 19th century that regarded the home as the proper place for a woman. Women ideally would be pious, pure, and submissive to her husband. Her role would be to take care of her children and ensure the happiness of her husband; she was not allowed to ever be selfish. –Sam

Decembrist Revolt - Upon the death of Alexander I, the Decemberist Revolt unfolded. It was a liberal revolt against the traditionally conservative regime. A coup attempt, led by the leader of Russia's army, these liberals wanted Alexander's brother Constantine to ascend the throne. Constantine was a notorious liberal, and the fact that this unsuccessful coup took place just goes to show that there were indeed liberal Russians. However, the revolt failed, and Alexander's über conservative son, Nicholas, took the throne. Nicholas was even more conservative than his father, and he proved to be harshly repressive. ~Ashley

factory System-A method of manufacturing that first began in England during the Industrial Revolution, replacing the putting out system. The movement is characterized by the shift to mechanized production and therefore use of less manpower, the large scale on which they operated, location near water sources for power and transportation, and uniformity such as worker uniforms and interchangeable parts. kristen.

Robert Owen used the factory system in order to explore his idea of a social utopia in his compounds like New Lenark, Scotland. In this experiment the mill was a community in which workers were treated well, given high wages (in credit at the local store) nice accommodations, and children were not forced into labor. This social utopia worked in New Lenark but when Owen tried to expand this into the United States it didn’t work. This is indicative of the socialist utopia movement of the early 19th century, in which the objective was better lives for the working class but not social utopia. It also exhibits the fact that the factory system spawned a paternalistic mindset. - Leora

The factory system sprang up as a product of the Industrial Revolution. It helped concentrate people in cities as it brought most of the jobs there. As more and more factories sprang up, they replaced the cottage industries (also known as the putting out system). This system led to the creation and rise of cities like Manchester in England, where pure gold flowed from this sewer of a city. –Sam

Hugo, Victor- Romantic writer and author of Les Miserables (1862), which focused on both religion and warfare as sources of salvation and hope for the French people, as well as the principle of “peraspera ad astra,” or “from the rough places to the stars.” (…in your multitudes, scarce to be counted…) Like fellow Romantic Alphonse de Lamartine, Hugo was also a member of France’s Second Republic, one of many middle-class moderates that dominated elections following Louis Philippe’s abdication. -Alexis

Irish Potato Famine This major crisis (also known as "The Great Hunger") was caused by a major potato blight in Ireland in 1845, which by the early 19th century was basically completely dependent on the potato crop. About 1 million died, and another million emigrated. The effects of the Potato Famine were one of the causes of the appeals to repeal the Corn Law in England. —Connie

The Irish Potato Famine also sparked a massive Irish emigration to the mainland and to the United States. The Irish became, in large part, the urban poor, the hands that fueled the industrial revolution. - Leora

Kossuth, Louis (Lajos) This Hungarian led the push for greater Hungarian representation in Austrian government, regardless of whether the government was conservative or liberal. In response, the Austrian King promised universal male suffrage and a functioning local Hungarian government. Lajos Kossuth and the Hungarians were inspired by the fiarly successful French revolt of 1848, though Austria's attempts at rebellion ultimately fail because opposition to conservative authority is too divided. —Connie

Lord Byron - A Romantic author who was specifically, along with Percy Shelley, fascinated by the Greek Revolt. Byron is credited with the archetype of the “Byronic hero,” a protagonist who is melancholy, dark and mysterious. Examples of a Byronic hero include the Count of Monte Cristo and Batman. – Erin

Lord Byron is one of the most prolific Romantics of his era, focusing his writing on the Byronic hero archetype which has come to dominate most modern literature. The Byronic hero features a very mysterious character plagued by some unknown guilt and possessing powers above common humanity. In his poems "Don Juan" and "Childe Harold" Byron expands his ideas to critique the values of the Victorian age, most specifically the institution of marriage which he openly mocks and satirizes throughout his works. -RORY

Louis Blanc -Blanc was on of the only socialists elected in the 2nd Republic, which was typically run by moderates. Blanc created a series of public works projects called the National Workshops. These workshops were widely popular among the working class, but many moderates felt these workshops set a dangerous precedent for government aid to the poor. In June, 1848 these workshops were banned and the Parisian working class took to the streets - Erin

Blanc believed that the capitalism developing in France tended to hurt the worker with too much competition between Frenchmen. His workshops would provide a helpful job for every able worker, and therefore help the society as well as the advancement of the person himself. He did not see his work as aid for the poor, although much of the upper class did, which they thought was detracting from their wealth. He was exiled and fled the country after the revolt of 1848. - Hayes

Louis Napoleon Bonaparte- Following the June Days Rebellion of 1848, Louis Napoleon Bonaparte was elected President of the 2nd Republic (the middle class). Again trying to use the name as a source of equalizing tensions, Louis represented both conservative power as well as liberal change that the original Napoleon mastered. Each side, working and middle class, wanted Napoleon to adhere to their agenda and in a sense both projected their cause onto him. -Becca

Louis Philippe- After the July Revolution of 1830 in France, Louis Philippe, a Orleans originally from the House of Bourbon, took power at the request of liberal revolutionaries. He came from a family tradition of liberalism as his father was of the side voting in favor of Louis XVI’s execution. ON the other hand however, he represented conservative monarchy. Louis became popular with the public and Parisians because of his bourgeois dress- a top hat, suit, and umbrella. Louis Philippe is often called the “Citizen King”, his rule the “July Monarchy”. Louis Philippe also embraced the tri-color flag of the revolution and did away with the white Bourbon flag. However, in the end the people were not pleased with the short extent Louis Philippe’s liberalism reached. After the initial advancement of 1830, Louis did little to continue the liberal change much of the public was looking for, and thus a discontent began to fester in the working class. Eventually, Louis flees to London in the first 1848 revolt. -Becca

Luddites- The Luddites were a group of textile artisans in England who adamantly opposed the new eruption of machinery and factories that replaced skilled workers for lower wages and longer hours. The Luddites were in some sense one of the first labor unions as they would deface factories, destroy machinery, and demand changes from oppressive owners and awful conditions. The Luddites also represented the class tension present in England that almost reached boiling point. -Becca

Malthus, Thomas Thomas Malthus was an Anglican clergyman with a passion for demography, or the study of human populations. In his Essay on the Principle of Population, published in 1798, Malthus argued that human populations increase faster than their food supplies. Agricultural production was able to keep up with the growing population because of improvements during the Industrial Revolution (i.e. the enclosure movement, efficient use of land, and increased mechanization); however, his theory still identified some major problems of the era. For example, he observed “there are few states in which there is not a constant effort in the population to increase beyond the means of subsistence.” His argument is also very relevant today and corresponds with many environmentalists’ fears for the future of the world. -Grace

Manchester, England During the early 19th century, England was a center of industrialization and urbanization, especially in rapidly growing cities full of factories like Manchester. Alexis de Toqueville said of Manchester, "pure gold flows from this sewer". Cities like Manchester became the economic center of England, though urbanization and industrialization also had its negative effects, like more pollution. —Connie

During the Victorian age, despite the huge economic contributions of Manchester, England suffered under repression due to uneven political representation in cities. The liberal Whigs made it a part of their goal to give political representation to Manchester and take it away from the "rotten boroughs" when this problem became more relevant. Because the English system of political representation was based on a medieval model, many "cities" were allotted representation in Parliament, such as Dunwich, which at the time no longer existed, which booming areas like Manchester, rich in both population and production, were allotted no votes. Earl Grey, Prime Minister and head of the Whigs, would propose a change to this problem with his Bill, which also would lead to the enfranchisement on 1/32 of all British citizens as well as a redrawing of Parliamentary lines to include important cities like Manchester and Birmingham. - RORY

Manchester was the symbolic center for the industrial revolution. The factories that sprouted up in and around Manchester led to greater stratification of the social classes, since the poor were now utterly reliant on the factories and the factory owners. This juxtaposition of the very wealthy and the new class, the urban poor, led to the socialist movement later on. - Leora

Metternich, Klemens von - Metternich was the Austrian Foreign Minister who represented his country at the Congress of Vienna. He was a strong conservative whose main objective was to stop the spread of liberalism. He proved to be wildly influential and well-known. ~Ashley

Metternich was the foreign minister of Austria who represented the conservative backlash against the romantic ideas of the French Revolution. At the Congress of Vienna, he was able to use his influence to ensure that a thoroughly conservative model came out of it. His very presence kept many later revolutionaries from taking things too far, as he would have invaded. Instead, they obtained liberal policies while maintain many conservative aspects as to not upset Metternich. For instance, in the July Revolt of 1830, the French only replaced one monarch with a more liberal one of the same family largely to avoid Metternich’s wrath. –Sam

Mill, John Stuart- a member of parliament and British philosopher who contributed to social theory, political theory, and political economy. He supported utilitarianism, a system of ethics that said that the right course of action is the one that maximizes happiness and reduces suffering, and believed an individual should have the freedom to oppose unlimited state control. he made falsification a key component to the scientific method. kristen.

July RevolutionConservative Charles X was in power from 1824 until July of 1830. His regime consisted of an ultra-royalist cabinet and instituted a constitutional monarchy. He gave more power to the Church over education and basically tried to subdue liberal resistance in his government. So in July of 1830 he issued the July Ordinances and reduced the number of voters by 75%, dissolved the Chambers of Deputies, and increased the power of the government such as censorship. Angered liberals rally and Parisians take to the streets as 700 people are killed and the fighting lasts for 3 days. Charles X flees to London and Louis Phillipe is placed in power. - Chuka

July Ordinances - Charles X of FR issued these in 1830. The decree reduced the number of voters in the Chamber of Deputies by 75%, thus giving people less of a voice. The C of D was changed so that voting was along new lines: only the very rich could vote (and those people tended to be quite loyal to the king). It also increased the reach of the government by increasing censorship. ~Ashley

June Days The June Days violence occurred because of a lingering class difference between the middle class and working class in France. National Workshops promoted by Socialist Louis Blanc were popular among the working class because it gave unemployed workers a chance to work on public works projects fixing roads, and walls around Paris. To moderate Republican bourgeoisie the workshops were seen as a dangerous principle and wasteful and the government terminated them in June. Artisans and workers saw this as a threat to the influence the working class actually had in the new republic, so they barricaded the working sections of Paris and fought the Republic’s troops for 3 days but ultimately failed. Over a thousand people died in these conflicts and thousands more would be sent to prison or deported as a result of their participation. This uprising epitomized the class warfare that much of the rest of Europe was about to endure in other countries in 1848. - Chuka

Peterloo Massacre- In 1819, 50,000 peaceful working-class protesters gathered in St. Peter’s field in Manchester to petition the suspension of habeas corpus, taxes which favored the wealthy classes and repression, among other reasons. Their sheer numbers scared local governments, so troops were sent in to disperse the crowds. As a result, 11 people died and countless other protesters were injured. This event is evidence of the class tension in England in the early 19th century, though the tension did not expand into a full-scale 1848 revolution as these tensions did in other countries. -Alexis

The Peterloo Massacre also became a huge rallying symbol for the Romantics of this era. Poets, specially Percy Bysshe Shelley, would take this event and write countless amounts of literature satirizing the perpetuating of monarchy within the English system and the arbitrary use of power against the people. Shelley would write "England in 1819" specifically after the Peterloo Massacre as well as "To Sidemouth and Castelreagh," two of his most famous works, the ones which eventually lead to his exile from England.- RORY

proletariat The proletariat was the working class of the industrial age and the antithesis to the dominant social class, the bourgeoisie, in Karl Marx’s theory of history. They did all of the hard work to fuel the industrial engine but received none of the profit. Marx believed that as long as the system of private property and capitalism existed, the bourgeoisie would always exploit the proletariat. He predicted that eventually the proletariat would overthrow the bourgeoisie resulting in a classless society. -Grace

Reform Bill of 1832- Was one of the primary reasons why the English did not experience a revolution in 1848. The bill, which doubled the number of eligible voters, eliminated “rotten boroughs” and allowed for representation in Parliament from new industrial cities like Manchester and Birmingham, split the English into two major parties: the Tories, led by the Duke of Wellington, and the Whigs, led by Earl Grey. At first, the House of Lords refused to pass the bill, but, with coaxing from Grey, the King pressured the House of Lords to vote for it. This event was proof that liberal principles could be put into effect in the government in a successful, legal and non-violent way. -Alexis

utopian socialists These early socialists were a reactionary backlash to conservatism and liberalism. Men like Count Claude Henri de Saint Simon, Charles Fourier, and Robert Owen wanted the lives of the poor working class to be improved. The goal was for a transformation of society to a more egalitarian culture. These three men had different abstract designs to see the standard of living for the lower class develop. Count Saint Simon, a French enlightenment thinker thought giving the power to elite scientists, businessmen, and intellectuals should orchestrate the economy to solve the social questions of poverty and crime. Mr. Robert Owen was the most successful with a communal way of life as Mr. Fourier had a similar idea. New Lenark, Scotland was the best example as he treated his workers better to maximize profit and worker morale. They worked 10 hour shifts, were paid higher wages, and had better accommodations than the average worker at the time. This type of society was a rebuttal to David Ricardo’s Iron Law of Wages idea as the owners could pay their workers more and still be profitable. - Chuka

Watt, James - Watt improved and patented the Steam Engine in 1782. The steam engine led to a huge increase in mechanization. Watt also teamed up with Matthew Bolton, a salesman, who aided in the marketing of the steam engine – Erin

Zollervein - This was a German Union established in 1818 between the Prussian and Hohenzollern territories, but Austria was excluded. This represents the Germanic desire for unification and was a big step toward complete unification, not just economic unification. –Sam