Age Of Exploration New Monarchs Key Terms 2nd Period
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39 Articles (1563) - These listed the basic beliefs of Anglicanism, but many people found them similar to Catholic beliefs. As a result of this lack of clarity, Catholics were not as rebellious to Elizabeth I and her support of Anglicanism. (Kavitha)

The 39 Articles were created under the leadership of then ArchBishop of Canterbury, Matthew Parker. He pulled back from the more extreme Calvinist elements in determining English Reformed Doctrine. They were created as a "via media", or middle path, between the views of Protestants and Catholics. Adherence to the Articles became a legal requirement in 1571. (Shredder)

Albrecht von Wallenstein - A bohemian and supreme leader of the armies of the Holy Roman Empire during the 30 years war. Eventually assassinated with the emperor's authority, who believed he was a traitor, since he'd been negotiating with the protestants for better pay for his services. Jordan

It is also important to note what von Wallenstein’s actions as a military commander say about not only the make-up of the Holy Roman Empire but also the nature of the 30 Years’ War itself. That a previously ordinary noble could so easily become a mercenary captain and conquer major Protestant regions of the northern Holy Roman Empire shows how extremely disorganized the HRE was. And that the HRE princes (both Catholic and Protestant) could unite against Ferdinand, forcing the dismissal (and later the assassination) of won Wallenstein illustrates not only the great extent of power held by the nobility in the HRE but that the 30 Years’ War, especially in its latter stages, was more about politics than religion. (Chuma)

Cardinal Richelieu - Both a French Clergyman and statesman, he was Louis XIII chief minister, and sought to restrain nobility and consolidate royal power. Made deals with protestant rulers in order to achieve his goals, one of which was keeping France on top during the 30 years war. Also a patron of the arts. Jordan

As his chief goal during his power was to weaken the Austro Spanish Hapsburg Dynasty, he did not hesitate to ally his country with Protestant leaders as long as it would weaken his enemies. This attitude and the actions of this man signified the shift in European history from wars of religion to wars of hegemony. Now it was not the premier objective of foreign policy to promote religion, but to advance secular power. Furthermore, he was the leading character in 'The Three Musketeers'. (Shredder)

Catherine de Medici - Wife of Henry II, Catherine de Medici was a very powerful female political power behind the scenes in France. When her son Charles IX was King, he was basically a political puppet controlled by her. During that time she married her daughter Margaret to Henry of Navarre, a Huguenot, as an attempt to unify the religion and minimize the issue of religion. But after the wedding, when all the prominent Huguenots are gathered in Paris for the wedding, Catherine changes her tactic and begins killing them off. This sparks the War of the Three Henrys, in which Catherine will also play a prominent role, originally backing her son Henry III, she later switches to support Henry of Navarre who goes on to become king. (Laura)

Columbian Exchange - The Columbian exchange refers to the global exchange of crops, animals, disease, ideas, and people that occurred during the Age of Exploration after the voyage of Christopher Columbus in 1492. It connected both the cultures of the New World and the Old World. Overall, the exchange benefited the people of Europe while bringing devastation to Native Americans. (Mackenzie)

Some specific examples of this exchange that would forever change the course of history were the introduction of maize, corn, and potatoes to the European diet and agricultural tradition. The Europeans also introduced the tapioca and peanut plants that would flourish in less fertile soils. Furthermore, the introduction of horses would also greatly change the lifestyle of the plains Indians. The tide of new diseases largely devastated the natives, but they got their revenge with their introduction of syphilis to the Europeans. (Shredder)

Cortez, Hernan - Hernan Cortes was a Spanish conquistador who landed in Mexico in 1519. He set out on an expedition to conquer the prosperous Aztec civilization and win Mexico for Spain. Cortes manipulated the Aztecs and their leader into thinking that he was an invincible, god-like figure who could control magnificent horses (animals which the Aztecs had never seen). His army, which consisted of about 600 troops and a few muskets and cannons, won a complete victory in two years. (Mackenzie)

Defenestration of Prague - The defenestration of Prague (May 23, 1618), was one of the first signs of Bohemian resistance to the rule of the Hapsburg family. This incident occurred in1618, when Bohemian Catholics shut down various Protestant chapels. Apparently, this had violated the “Letters of Majesty,” which provided basic protection (religious tolerance) for the Protestants in Bohemia. In response to this, Protestant officials called a meeting to discuss the violation of the Letters of Majesty, and subsequently threw the Catholic officials (violators) out of the windows of the room they were in. This incident sparked the beginning of the Thirty Years’ War. (Ricky Gillis)

Dias, Bartholomew - In 1487, he reached the Cape of Good Hope on the tip of South Africa. Once he reaches this point, he turns around. (Sarah Shea)
It is also important to note about Bartholomew’s voyage past the Cape of Good Hope that when he returned to Portugal, his voyage gave immense hope to both Portugal and the rest of Europe that a concrete route to India could be a very real possibility in the field of exploration, which would eventually lead to an influx of goods and ideas. (Ricky Gillis)

Duke of Alva (or Alba) - Sent by Philip II in 1567, the Duke of Alva led 10000 troops to quell the Dutch rebellion. His tactics were very violent, including the Council of Blood where he executed the arrested leaders and thousands of rebels. He wins the war but unifies the opposition. This unification leads to William of Orange emerging as the leader of the Dutch and it helps them gradually gain independence. (Laura)

Duke of Sully (France)-Economic advisor to Henry IV, Duke of Sully strongly encouraged the economic system of mercantilism to gain money for France. This would require much more government control, but would ensure a successful economy for the time being. Duke of Sully’s persuasion worked and Henry IV adopted this policy. (Sarah Tomlin)

Dutch East India Company - This company was founded in 1602 during the Golden Age of the Dutch and set up the International Commericial Empire. Much of the economic success for the Dutch was due to this company and how they were able to monopolize trade and establish economic contact with other countries. By 1670, it had 150 merchant ships, 40 warships, and 50,000 employees. Also the company was equipped with 10,000 private soldiers to protect investments and as a defensive barrier to the Portuguese. (Kavitha)
-The Dutch East India Trading CO is best understood as a ruthlessly and violently monopolistic commercial empire that fed off of pure vertical integration in their production of goods. By controlling the entire territory, the Dutch were able to control every aspect of the manufacturing process, allowing them to control operating and resource costs, while also shutting out all other potential competitors, enabling them to jack up the price of their finished product due to its exclusivity. (Rich)

Enclosures (Enclosure Movement) - A movement in England from the 16th to the 19th century in which public nobles’ land was closed. Instead of the land being used for the good of the community, the land was used by the nobles to make a profit. Due to this movement, many poor peasants, who had used this land to earn a livelihood, were forced to move to cities therefore creating larger cities. (Hannah)

This system also illustrates important themes of the commercial revolution. First off, it demonstrates the rise of the capitalist economy and capitalist values; the communal bond between classes of the medieval days is replaced by the profit motives of the nobility while the communal control of resources (land) is replaced by private ownership. Additionally, the urbanization that resulted in turn fed into the commercial age by forcing more people to take part in the new industries and markets of the urban-based economy. (Chuma)

Encomienda System - “Encomienda” was a Spanish system of social and political government in the New World. Spanish Lords taxed and enslaved the natives, while teaching them Christianity and maintaining order on plantations. Although the system was originally meant to lessen the abuses of forced labor, it ultimately became a symbol of Spanish oppression and exploitation of the natives in the New World. (Mackenzie)

Edict of Nantes- After Henry IV became the first Bourbon King in 1589, many issues arose due to the Protestant (Huguenot) King ruling a dominantly Catholic nation. Declaring, “Paris is worth a mass,” Henry IV converts to Catholicism in order to be the best ruler of Paris and to gain the loyalty and respect of this new Kingdom. But by no means was this a religious change of heart, rather he knew politically, as a politique, this would best suit him and his political power. But in 1598, to appease his past followers, he allows Calvinism to be practiced in the towns in which they were already dominant. This was called the Edict of Nautes and with this he tried to compromise with the Huguenots because he knew they would not be happy that their strongest political leader suddenly turned on them when he gained power and fame. (Sarah Tomlin)

Magellan, Ferdinand - Ferdinand Magellan was the first man to circumnavigate the globe in 1519. Although he died on the journey and does not make it back to Spain, one of the three ships made the entire journey and returned to Spain with great profits in spices. (Hannah) The profit from the spices was important because it ushered in an age of risk taking. From this we see the rise of "capitalism" and merchants and commoners willing to risk their lives in high risk, high reward trading. (MDog)

Mary Tudor (aka “Bloody Mary”) - Mary Tudor was the daughter of Henry VIII and Catherine of Aragon, and was named Queen of England from 1553-1558. A devote Catholic, Mary changed the religion of England from Anglican back to Catholic, and quickly received the title “Bloody Mary” because of her use of force to unite England under one religion. She married Philip II because of the Protestant threat and briefly unified Spain and England. However because Philip and Mary did not have any children, when Mary died, Elizabeth I, her half sister and Protestant, broke off ties with Spain. (Hannah)

Mary Stuart (aka “Mary Queen of Scots”) - Mary was Elizabeth’s cousin and was therefore the heir to the English throne. However she was also Catholic, and after Knox and the Presbyterians chased her out of Scotland in 1568, she landed in England where she roused Catholic rebels to fight against Elizabeth in the Northern Uprising. Elizabeth crushed this rebellion and eventually executed Mary because she was too much of a threat to Elizabeth’s power. (Kavitha)

mercantilism - Mercantilism is an economic theory that holds three strong beliefs. The first is there is a certain amount of money in the world and they can never change. This idea makes the population want to get as much of that fixed money for themselves because once it is gone, there will be nothing left to have. This system also encourages the strong balance of trade with in a nation working under a mercantile system. This means they strongly support an economy that exports more than it imports in order to gain as much money as possible for the nation. Finally, with mercantilism come colonies. They will not only support the “mother country” but also be the foundation for the economy for this nation. This hope of exporting more than importing is made possible by colonies because of their vast amounts of raw goods. Mercantilism was strongly advocated by Henry IV economic advisor, Duke of Sully. (Sarah Tomlin)

Moctezuma - This was an Aztec king who was killed by Hernan Cortez in the initial stages of the Spanish Conquest of Mexico in the Aztec's most significant city, Tenochtitlan. The Aztecs were at their peak during his rule, but their technology was far inferior to that of the Spaniards. (Jordan) The use of spanish horses , firearms and the fact that the Aztecs believed Cortez to be Quetzalcoatl, the feather serpent god. (Mdog)

Paulette- During Henry IV reign, along with mercantilism, he installed a tax called a Paulette. By paying this tax, a government official, or someone holding a government position, would ensure that their position would be hereditary. Paid annually, this money went directly to the government and made the people with power happy as well as give more people power. The old nobility, the Nobility of the Sword, still held their traditional power by paying this tax, but also a new nobility formed called the Nobility of the Robe consisting of new people with new power. For Henry IV, this brought in an annual revenue to the economy, giving it a huge boost, but also, this new nobility, as well as the old, held much more power than they had before. They could now ultimately decide who would be in power for many years to come. (Sarah Tomlin)

Peace of Westphalia - The peace of Westphalia was a series of treaties that ended the 30 Years War. One of the most important aspects of the treaty was Spain's official recognition of the independence of the Dutch Republic. It also ended the Catholic Reformation in Germany and renewed the Peace of Augsburg with Calvinism as a politically accepted faith. (Laura)
-Also see that the treaty was not just about a peace between Spain and the Netherlands but was more of a diplomatic pact for most of Europe to reign in the pugnaciousness and chaotically bellicose nature of kings at the time. Nations focused on discipline and control of their military arsenals, leading to the more organized battle structures classically portrayed in paintings of the British army, and the area witnessed a shift to a more methodical and complex political system than the impulsive warring of states seen previously. (Rich)

It is also important to note the extent to which the Peace of Westphalia and its aftermath profoundly affected European history in the following centuries. With the Peace came the emergence of a state system in Europe; the state was now the basic unit and object of loyalty in Western civilization (as opposed to nations aligning in religious blocs). This was the first comprehensive rearrangement of the European map in modern times. More importantly, the Peace indicated that religious aims would no longer determine a state’s foreign policy. Hereafter, states were ready and willing to fight only for economic, territorial, or political advantages. (Chuma)

Pizarro, Francisco - Francisco Pizarro was a Spanish conquistador who conquered the Incan empire. He was one of many conquistadors, Spanish explorers, bringing back silver from the new world which, although initially beneficial, eventually resulted in an economic collapse in Spain. (Laura) He was able to conquer the Incas with a significantly smaller force by capturing the Incan emperor, who the Incas believed to be divine. (MDog)

politique - This term refers to the manner in which Elizabeth I ruled England. She wanted to reduce religious tensions in order to maximize her political power as oppose to Phillip II who maximized both. For example the Act of Uniformity allowed fines to be given to those who did not attend the Anglican Church, which was a less severe consequence and gave people a way to not convert their beliefs. Elizabeth wanted her people to be Anglican but she was not going to be coercive unless there was a religious threat to her power. (Kavitha)
-Additionally it’s important to see that Politique rule isn’t about ignoring religious issues but rather about strengthening unity through support of nationalistic causes and setting up a government that provides a heavier focus on coexistence and peace. For example Henry IV’s passage of the Edict of Nantes was designed to appease both major religious parties, so rather than disregarding religious issues he confronted them to ensure social stability and a focus of nationalism. (Rich)

Prince Henry the Navigator - Prince Henry the Navigator of Portugal founded a navigation school in 1420 with its goal to locate a route to India by going around the tip of Africa in order to increase trade so that trade could be made by sea instead of land. (Hannah)

Prince Henry was the son of the John I of Portugal, the founder of the Aziz dynasty. One of his most significant nautical achievements was the development of the caravel, which was capable of sailing further and faster. In addition, one of his significant sources of income was his appointment to lead the Portuguese organization that succeeded the Knights Templar. He also benefitted from trade benefits granted to him by his influential family. He also ensured his legacy by donating a significant amount of money that would eventually become the University of Lisbon. (Shredder)

“putting-out system” - The “putting-out system” was a system of production where the subcontracting of work occurred. This was very dominant in Europe, especially in the textile industry. In the case of the textile industry, merchants would provide the raw materials (wool, flax) to rural households, and the members of these households would produce goods with the raw materials received. (Ricky Gillis)

Spanish Armada - Philip II sent the Spanish Armada to England in 1588. England was helping the Dutch in their rebellion against Spain, and Philip wanted to weaken this aid. Also, he was trying to kill Protestant England. But, Seadog Sir Francis Drake (pirate) was robbing all of the ships, weakening the Armada. When Philip asked Elizabeth to get this pirate to stop, she knighted him and eventually the Armada was defeated. (Sarah Shea).
-The Armada was a key point in Spanish and English history because it revealed to the world a Spanish vulnerability, something Europe had not yet seen. It also marked the beginning of the decline of the Spanish empire because after this moment its economic, military, and political structure begins to crumble at the feet of internal weaknesses and it never regains the glory it once held. (Rich)

St. Bartholomew’s Day Massacre - 1572. Because of Catherine de Medici and Henry II's daughter's marriage to Henry of Navare (Huguenot), all protestant leaders were going to be in the same place at the same time. Catherine de Medici saw this as a great opportunity to kill them all. (Sarah Shea) This was the alternative to her first plan, being that the marriage of her daughter and a Huguenot leader might bring the two groups to peace. (MDog)
It is also important to note about the St. Bartholomew’s Day Massacre that this massacre of the Protestants was not limited only to the time close to the marriage of Henry of Navarre and Catherine de Medici's daughter, but also lasted for several weeks. This massacre of thousands of Protestants, including most of the Protestant leaders in France, became a serious detriment to the political movement of the Huguenots in France at the time, due to the lack of some integral political members of the religious (Huguenot) community. (Ricky Gillis)

Thirty Years War - A conflict fought from 1618-1648 mainly between the Holy Roman Empire and Spain vs France, The United Dutch Provinces, Sweden, and the Ottomans. The House of Orange leads the Dutch militarily through this conflict, which is supported by England, and France enters the fighting after a brief internal conflict with rebellious Huguenots. Cardinal Richelieu's strong opposition towards the Hapsburgs fostered his decision to enter the conflict and economically support the Swedes, but they are countered by the Spanish, and beaten handily. They eventually bounce back and push Spain back to the French borders. French opposition to the conflict as well as its attrition led to negotiations for peace, which culminated in the Peace of Westphalia. HRE and Spain come out as losers, though there was never a definitive victor, but the destruction of the HRE and Hapsburg influence there is a monumental victory for their rivals. Jordan

Note that only in the First and Second Phases of the War (1618-21 and 1621-30 respectively) can we argue that religious conflict engendered the fighting. Afterwards (1630-1648), the belligerents were fueled by purely political aims. Everybody decided that they hated the Habsburgs, so Sweden (under Gustavus Adolphus), France (whose ruler at the time was Catholic), and the princes of the HRE all teamed up to either assert their independence from the Emperor or to siphon off his territories (or both!). After the War was over, the German princes were essentially independent rulers and the United Provinces and Swiss Confederation were official recognized while the Habsburgs came away the real losers of the situation. (Chuma)

Treaty of Tordesillas (Line of Demarcation) - This treaty, signed by Portugal and Spain in 1494, drew an imaginary line some 300 miles west of the Azores in order to avoid trade conflicts. Portugal was granted all lands to the east of the line, and Spain was granted all lands to the west of the line. In effect, Spain controlled most of the New World, while Portugal continued to maintain its African trade routes. (Mackenzie)

War of the Three Henrys - This was the last wave of violence that was sparked by St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre. This war was between III (Valois and Catholic), Henry of Guise (Catholic and hates the Valois), and Henry of Navare (Huguenot). After the Spanish Armada failed, Philip II could not support Guise as much, and in 1589 Henry III killed Henry of Guise. But in the same year, a follower of Guise killed Henry III, leaving Henry of Navare to be the only one surviving. He became King Henry Navare of France. (Sarah Shea)