Age Of Exploration New Monarchs Key Terms 1st Period
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39 Articles:Approved by Parliament in 1563 under the reign of Queen Elizabeth I, the 39 articles clarified the basic beliefs of Anglicans. Elizabeth proposed a series of Acts to Parliament to help relieve religious tension. The Articles were written in a language that was just vague enough that it would still appeal to most Catholic converts and prevent them to rebelling. Elizabeth was consiliatory with the intent to barely tolerate different religious ideas until they posed a threat to her crown. By making the Church of English similar to Catholisism, she helped eliminate this threat but also achieved a greater nationalistic pride. (Ellie Sheild)

Albrecht von Wallenstein: Wallenstein played an important role in the second and third phase of the Thirty year wars (the period from 1621-1632). When fighting resumed in Germany between the Protestants and the Catholics. Wallenstein headed the imperial army of Ferdinand of the Hapsburgs. He was able to recover much territory, but it was less because of his success as a mercenary captain and more because of the fragmentation of Germany at the time. Finally, the princes (protestant and catholic) got their act together and were able to join together and defeat Wallenstein. However, in 1632, when the Swedes began to once again threaten the Hapsburgs, Ferdinand called in Wallenstein. After Wallenstein saved Ferdinand from the Swedish Gustavus, Ferdinand was coerced by the increasingly powerful Hapsburg princes to have Wallenstein assassinated. (Caroline Beuley)

Cardinal Richelieu - Cardinal Richelieu was a favorite of Henry IV's wife, Marie de Medici, who served as regent for their young son after Henry died. In 1624, a decade after Henry's death, Richelieu became chief minister and gained control of the government. He held this job for the next 18 years, and in that time successfully managed the extensive French bureaucracy, limited the power of nobles by giving them their own positions (although not much responsibility) in the royal government, and fighting the Huguenots. He eventually defeated them and took away much of the freedom granted to them by the Edict of Nantes. The sale of offices in the government exploded under Richelieu, providing half of royal revenues by 1633; ten years later, three-quarters of taxes had to go towards paying these officeholders' salaries. Richelieu handled this by increasing the power of "intendants," representatives of the crown in each province of France. These agents relied on royal favor more than nobles did and so were quick to support the king's taxes, decrees, and military campaigns. As threats to the power of nobles and symbols of rising taxes, the intendants were hated and inspired a number of peasant uprisings. (Jane Wester)

Cardinal Richelieu is specifically known for his pivotal role in shifting the Thirty Years War from a settlement regarding religious strife to a hegemonic ploy for political advantage over the Hapsburgs. In 1635, Richelieu took the reins and allied Catholic France with protestants fighting against the Catholic Hapsburgs in order to gain political advantage regardless of religious issues. From 1635 to 1648 there were numerous French victories on the battlefield and ultimately gained Richelieu the idea of being known as a real politque, or ready to place political issues at the forefront of ruling without focus on morality. (Rory Keeley)

Catherine de’ Medici: Born 1519 in Florence to Lorenzo de Medici and Madeleine de la Tour d'Auvergne. She married Henry II, Duke of Orléans, who became King of France in 1536, but died shortly thereafter. His successor was his son, Francis II who also died, leaving the throne to another son, Charles IX. Because Charles was so young when he assumed the throne, his mother Catherine was named regent, giving her a very significant amount of power. Her capriciousness is said to have caused St. Bartholomew’s Massacre in Paris, as she threw her support behind the Catholics at times, then behind the Protestants at others. - Tahira Benjamin

Catherine de Medici is a controversial figure in history. After marrying and birthing two sons mentioned above, she believed her influence was more important than her sons. She was a rather selfish but also savvy leader, looking out for only her personal gain. In order to get in well with the Protestants as well as kill all of the Protestants in one sitting, she arranged a marriage between her daughter, Margaret, and Henry of Navarre, a Huguenot. While many important Protestant members were attending the royal ceremony, she began a massive slaughter, attempting to kill all of the Protestants. Known as the St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre, Catherine de Medici slaughtered all but practically one important Protestant, King Henry of Navarre. (Lauren Burton)

Columbian Exchange - when Columbus went to America, the exchange between the new and old world was created. This Columbian Exchange was the exchange of both ideas and goods, and ultimately lead to the old world dominating the new world via colonialism. (Louis Stephens)

Another effect of the Columbian Exchange was the transmission of diseases. While the Columbian Exchange by-and-large benefited Europeans it was extremely harmful to many Native American populations because of the diseases the Europeans brought with them. For example, the Aztecs and Incas were less conquered because of the efforts of Spanish soldiers than because of the spread of smallpox. (Connor Haines)

Cortez, Hernando: This Spanish explorer arrived in Mexico in 1519, seeking to grab control over the culturally and materially wealthy Aztec community there. Cortez achieved his success by warping the Aztec perception of himself into a god-like figure, rallying his followers, and exaggerating the magnificence of animals the Aztecs had not encountered yet, such as horses. It is argued that the firearm mechanisms brought over by Cortez were not responsible for his two year battle for victory since he had possession of few well-working muskets and cannons. (KatieMayo)

Throughout Cortez's reign as governor of the Aztec territory, he was in constant struggle with Charles V about the extent of his power. Cortez believed that others who had been appointed to high positions diminished his leadership capacities. When Cortez returned to Mexico in 1530 following his meeting with Charles, he found his territory in a state of disarray. He ended his life in huge debt but was considered a strong military conquistador. (Robert Jessell)

defenestration of Prague - Emperor Rudolf II had guaranteed the Protestants of Bohemia religious freedom in the 1609 Letter of Majesty. So, in 1617, when Catholic officials in Bohemia shut down Protestant chapels, an assembly of Protestants was called at Prague. Two men who served as imperial regents were found guilty of violating the Letter of Majesty and were thrown with their secretary from the windows of the room. This was the defenestration of Prague of May 23, 1618. No one was seriously harmed, but it marked the beginning of a Bohemian revolt that would help lead to the Thirty Years' War. (Jane Wester)

When Ferdinand, a counterreformation Catholic, became the ruler of Bohemia, he went back on what Rudolf had previously promised (Jane discussed this). This precipitated the defenestration and ultimately the rebellion of the Bohemians in 1618. The Bohemians declared that Ferdinand’s rule was void, and they made their new leader Frederick II of the Palatinate. Frederick’s acceptance only spelled war. Ferdinand, in the first phase of the Thirty Years War, was able to completely conquer back all of Frederick’s land in Bohemia, but other nations quickly jumped on the opportunity to “take advantage of the fragmentation of the empire.” -DavisHeniford

The Defenestration itself represented a literal defenestration during 1618 when Protestant and Catholic met to discuss the Holy Roman Emperor Ferdinand’s repeal of the “Letter of Majesty” issued by HRE Randolf. During the negotiations, angry Protestant reformers threw a Catholic official out of window, which, although he did die, sparked an end to negotiations and further embitterment between the Catholics and Protestants. The Defenestration sparks the 30 years war in that negotiations can no longer serve to bridge the cap between Protestants and Catholics. The fact that Catholics were willing to negotiate with Protestants represents the increase in power of the Protestants as they could initiate negociations.-David Farrow

Dias, Bartholomew - the Portuguese captain who was the first to sail past the Cape of Good Hope and make landfall on the eastern coast of Africa in 1488. This was a huge accomplishment for Portugal, and now opened up spice trading with the Asian countries, mainly India. (CarterWiles)

Dias was a member of the royal court whose quest was to sail around the Southern tip of Africa. Part of the mission was to form a relationship with the "Christian King" in the South of Africa, so the Portuguese could be on good terms with the African royalty. (Lauren Burton)

Duke of Alva (or Alba) - Sent by Phillip II to quell the Dutch Rebellion in 1567, The Duke of Alva uses brute force against the Dutch. There was still an opportunity for a peaceful solution between the Spanish and the Dutch until this Duke uses incredibly violent means with over 10,000 troops. He executes thousands of prisoners with the Council of Blood which increased Dutch Hatred. Not only the Duke caused Spain financial distress, but his horrific tactics only unified the Dutch opposition and did so around William of Orange. (Ellie Sheild)

Duke of Sully (France) - the Duke of Sully was Henry IV's finance minister. He was largely responsible for the theory of mercantilism. Mercantilism was the economic component of absolutism, and assumed that the amount of wealth in the world was fixed, so a country must try to grab up as much wealth as it can while it can. Mercantilism encouraged colonization, government regulation of the economy, and exports over imports. This meant that a strong, centralized government was crucial to mercantilism. (Jane Wester)

Dutch East India Company - Holland in the 1600's was the financial center of the world so Amsterdam developed new ideas to help promote and support trade like a concept of insurance. Through stock exchages and advertising, this encouraged more a risktaking and allowed more people to participate in the trading, thus creating more revenue circulating. The pivotal Dutch East India Company provided just that when it was founded in 1602. At its' peak 70 years later the Company controlled 150 Merchant ships, 40 Warships, 50,000 employees, and 10,000 private soldiers - all which greatly aided the Dutch defeat of Portugual. By having offices at every major port around the world and owning more merchant ships than the rest of Europe combined, the Dutch used business, not colonization, to become a world superpower. (Ellie Sheild)

Enclosures (Enclosure Movement): Enclosures (Enclosure movement): English landowners, who used to allow anyone on their lands (treated their land as public land), closed their land to the public by building fences. This made their land more profitable and allowed the landowners themselves to take all the profit of the crops planted on their land. The profit-driven landowners reflect the emerging sense of capitalism in the 16th century. The movement also caused urbanization, as small farmers who made their living working on the land of others were forced to move to cities in search of work. (Meaghan Shimota)

The enclosure movement represents a shift from focusing on the common good (communal land could be used to grow crops for the whole village) to what's good for the individuals. Community is sacrificed for profitability as, with the population rebounded from the Black Death, there is an increased demand for crops. The demand drives up prices, which provides an incentive for land owning nobles to quarantine their land and prevent the common people from growing on it. Then, they would simply sell to the common people, and make a profit. The shift away from communal good to profitability marks a shift towards capitalism in that individuals are profit driven.-David Farrow
Encomienda System: The Spanish used this destructive system of forced labor during their colonizing efforts in South and Central America. In this system a Spanish landowner in the New World has complete control over all indigenous people in his territory, using religion as a means to cover the abuses of the system. It was also a means to create a political hierarchy in the New World with the Spanish king still remaining in charge. (KatieMayo)

Originally used to manage the conquered Moors, the Encomienda system found its way west. The people of the overtaken land had to pay tributes to their conquerors in exchange for hypothetical protection. The system was so harsh at first that it wiped out an entire population in the West Indies. As a result, the New Laws in 1542 were passed, which slowly got rid of the cruel system. (Robert Jessell)

Edict of Nantes: Prior to the issuing of the Edict of Nantes in 1598 by Henry IV, Spain had been fighting in France to have a Spanish ruler on the French throne. Eventually Catholic Spain gave up and agreed to a peace treaty. The final step in this resolution between the two countries had to do with religious tolerance, a charged topic between the Catholics in Spain and the French Huguenots and Catholics. The Edict of Nantes gave Huguenots, or French Calvinists, a sense of acceptance and tolerance in French society. Specifically this edict permitted worship of the Calvin religion, vowed to look after the few rights of Calvinists, and allowed Calvinists the right to run and be elected to a public office. (KatieMayo)

Although the Huguenots (French Calvinists) were given some rights, they were still not overwhelmingly tolerated. Calvinism was only legal in certain towns and could not be practiced in towns that were not issued as Calvinist towns in the Edict of Nantes. The Huguenots felt rather abandoned after King Henry IV converted to Catholicism after originally practicing Calvinism. While the Edict of Nantes does effectively separate the religious tensions between Catholics and Huguenots in France, the Huguenots were constantly left with the shorter end of the stick. (Lauren Burton)
Magellan, Ferdinand: Although Portuguese, Magellan (c. 1480-1521) explored for Spain, setting out in 1519 for a western sea route to Asia. Although he died during his journey, one of his three ships eventually made it back to Spain in 1521. Becoming the first to discover the Pacific Ocean and the first to circumnavigate the globe, Magellan's voyage was a success both in terms of exploration and economics. Although only one ship returned, the spices were lucrative enough to deliver a huge profit. (Meaghan Shimota)

Mary Tudor (aka “Bloody Mary”): Daughter of the ill-fated marriage between Henry VIII and Catherine of Aragon, Mary Tudor became the Queen of England in 1553, following the death of her half-brother Edward VI and the less-than-a-year rule of Lady Jane Grey. A Catholic, Mary married Philip II of Spain. In an attempt to restore Catholicism in England, which had become Protestant under Henry VIII, Mary had hundreds of religious dissenters (Protestants, etc.) executed, usually burning them. Thus Mary became known as "Bloody Mary." Failing to produce a child with Philip, Mary died in 1558, and Elizabeth I ascended the the thrown, restoring Protestantism as the religion of England. (Meaghan Shimota)

Mary Stuart (aka “Mary Queen of Scots”) - A widow of The King of France, Francis II, she returns to Scotland around the same time as the Presbyterian John Knox. Because she was a Catholic, the uprisings against her rule force her to flee to England in 1568. Being a legitimate heir, and first cousin, to Queen Elizabeth I of England did not stop Mary Stuart from starting a Northern Catholic Rebellion in England. With 500 rebels executed, Elizabeth crushed the rebellion as it posed a political threat to her crown. In 1587, Mary is beheaded by her own cousin for continuing to promote Catholism, the beheading caused Elizabeth much pain and sorrow. (Ellie Sheild).

mercantilism - an idea proposed to Henry IV by his finance manager, the Duke of Sully, it said that the French government basically needed to seize control of its economy. The idea was that there is a limited amount of money in the world, and the French need to maintain a balance of trade in which they export/sell their products more than they import/buy products from other countries. This idea also leads to colonization of the New World, because countries like France wanted access to new goods without having to import any of these goods from their neighboring countries, who soon became their competitors. (CarterWiles)

Mercantilism relies on the notion that wealth cannot expand or contract, as such wealth is relative to material goods (ie gold, silver, precious metals). As such, the mercantilist thus prefers to colonize areas in order to extract natural resources, as they could gain overall material growth. The Mercantilist systems starts in France, promulgated by the Duke of Sully (as Carter mentioned); however, it expands as other countries attempt to gain access to the natural resources from their colonies. Once wealth has been amassed, the mercantilist will also attempt to hoard said wealth by limiting trade with other countries, as such the mercantilist would favor stronger government regulation in order to keep favorable trade surplus. -David Farrow

Moctezuma - Moctezuma became Aztec emperor in 1502; when Spanish explorer Hernan Cortes arrived, the Aztecs mistook him for their god Quetzalcoatl, who was supposed to arrive to rule over the empire. Moctezuma died while being held captive by the Spanish inside the capital city of Tenochtitlan. The Spanish defeated the Aztecs for good not long after. (Jane Wester)

paulette: A paulette was an annual tax that government officials could pay to make their title hereditary. While it raised money for the government, it also meant less appointments by the monarch, and thus less direct control over the government.(Caroline Beuley)

This tax was imposed upon the French people by King Henry IV who won power after the War of the Three Henrys. However, it was most specifically implemented by his finance minister, the Duke of Sully, after Henry promised "a chicken in every pot" and used a mercantile system to maintain economic prosperity within France. (Rory Keeley)
Peace of Westphalia - the peace that ended the war for independence with spain (1648). note that after this, the Dutch slowly lost power because they were constantly invaded and therefore couldn't survive as an economic powerhouse. (Louis Stephens)

This treaty served as the basis of international relations for about one hundred years.  For the first time, all of the participants in the war gathered to create the Peace of Westphalia, which allowed for the first time for truly “all-embracing treaties” to be created, dealing with many international issues at once.  Due to the influence of the new monarchs, the state system had risen, and sovereign nations could formally control relations with each other.  France and Sweden gained land at the cost of the Holy Roman Empire.  The Hapsburgs faced further problems as the United Provinces and the Swiss Federation became recognized as sovereign nations.  Additionally, German princes gained almost complete freedom from the emperor.  Many at the time that international relations were the most firmly defined after this treaty then they ever had been -DavisHeniford

The Peace of Westphalia ended the Thirty Years War (as well as the war between the Spanish and Dutch as Louis explains above). One of the most important results The Peace of Westphalia was a major reshuffling in the power of European countries. After these peace terms were agreed France replaced Spain as Europe’s greatest power, and countries such as England, and for a time the Netherlands, began to dominate Europe’s economy. The Peace of Westphalia was a major landmark in the development of a system for independent states to manage their relationships with one another. (Connor Haines)

Pizarro, Francisco - a Spanish conquistador who conquered the Incan Empire. He was drawn to South America by tales of Cortes' success against the Aztecs, and after his 3rd attempt discovered the Incas. During his fourth expedition, funded by King Charles I, he was able to capture and then execute the Incan emperor, and entered the capital of Cuzco in 1533, conquering the Incan Empire. (CarterWiles)

Early on in Pizarro's days of exploration, Pizarro made an alliance with a man named Diego de Almagro. They went to Peru together in 1526 and grew close to each other. Yet not long after Pizarro made Lima the official capital of Peru, Almagro took control of the Incan territory. This led to the murder of Almagro and Pizarro in retaliation. (Robert Jessell)

politique - Elizabeth was this - a politique was usually a ruler who was moderately religious and felt that political savvy trumped religiously motivated politics. The opposite of a politique was Philip II (Louis Stephens)

Another prime example of a politique is Henry IV who gained power in France. Henry rose to the throne with the support of fellow Huguenots in the war of the Three Henrys but converted to Catholicism when he took over as ruler to appeal to the masses. Not completely throwing his supporters aside, Henry IV did legalize Calvinism in some areas of France. Yet his conversion was a move to quell dissention among the people for the better of the country. (Robert Jessell).

It can also be argued that Cardinal Richelieu represents a politique in that he was willing to fight against his own beliefs (Catholicism) in order to better France politically during the 30 years war. His prioritization of politics over religion in turn illustrates a change within all of Europe as leaders begin to think about their own power relative to other countries and how they can maximize said power. As such, we see a decline in people like PHillip II who fought for their religious beliefs, instead everything is based on gaining power.-David Farrow

It’s also important to note the change over time that contributed to the success of the politiques. All of the new monarchs except for Philip realized that fighting to maintain faith was useless and a waste of money, but fighting when power was being challenged was essential to their success. Philip wasn’t necessarily wrong, as the spread of other religions throughout his territories appeared to pose a threat to his power, but his logic was flawed; he believed that by imposing one religion, he would eradicate challenges to his power. I do question Elizabeth’s success then, because essentially she did the same thing; however, she had less of a challenge than Philip because her realm was smaller and more religiously homogenous. –Tahira Benjamin

Prince Henry the Navigator: From Portugal, this royal patronage of exploring and a navigator himself, headed his country's cultural obsession with exploration. Prince Henry the Navigator founded a school of navigation in 1420, educating some of the finest explorers of the day who arguably achieved more than Henry did himself. Henry's support, dedication, and enthusiasm for exploration propelled his country to one of the leading roles in international exploration. (KatieMayo)

It is also important to note that it was because of the zeal injected into Portugal from the efforts of Prince Henry that during the Age of Exploration Portugal was one of the strongest players. Portugal sets up trading posts all around the world, including Asia, but maintained themselves, similar to the Netherlands, as a commercial empire rather than a colonial empire. Portugal was so influential regarding exploration that in 1493, Spain and Portugal asked the Pope to mark a line of the map dividing up the unconquered world between them know as the Line of Demarcation. However, a year later Portugal would realize they were given a much smaller amount of land than originally intended so the line was redrawn with the Treaty of Tordesillas buy by that point both Spain and the Netherlands had overtaken Portugal in the age of exploration. (Rory Keeley)

“putting-out system”: The putting out system was the labor system that overtook the guild system. The guild system limited competition and was not profit-driven, failing to adapt to the emerging capitalistic mindset. Basically, it was similar to subcontracting: wool was produced, a man took the wool to the house of someone who would turn the wool into yarn, the man would take the yarn to someone who would turn it into cloth, the man would take the cloth to someone who would turn it into a garment, and finally the man would sell the garment. The middleman would keep a cut of each man's pay who he subcontracted to. In addition, the pricing of the final product was no longer determined with the idea that the seller would only charge the cost of producing and cost of living. The sellers were now profit-driven. (Meaghan Shimota)

Spanish Armada - 1588, the English had been aiding the Dutch & Pirates like sir francis drake had been steeling from the Spanish, so the spanish (Philip II) wanted to crush them. Also, Philip felt that he needed to save the souls of the Calvinists - he sent the 'Invincible Armada' to crush them, but the fleet was inferior and out gunned by the swift Royal Navy and the Protestant Winds. (Louis Stephens)

The failure of the Spanish Armada in 1588 was perhaps Phillip II greatest failure. With such a large fleet (the largest ever in Europe up to that point – totaling 133 ships) Phillip thought victory was inevitable. As Louis explained above, this was not the case, and of the 27,000 men who set out from Spain, only 10,000 returned. Our textbook even says, “This shattering reversal was comparable in scale and unexpectedness only to Xerxes’ disaster at Salamis more than two thousand years before” (424). This defeat was a clear and major sign that European power was shifting northward. (Connor Haines)

The fall of the Spanish Armada in 1588 is the biggest turning point in Spanish history, and a turn for the worst for Phillip II. After this humiliating defeat by Elizabeth I, Phillip II still will stop at nothing to quell the spread of Protestantism throughout Europe and went on to fight two more extremely expensive wars at the start of the 17th Century that would leave his country decaying and dying under his feet. Phillip II will fight against the Dutch Rebellion from 1621 to 1648 and also participate in the Thirty Years War, where afterwards he would lose both the Netherlands with the recognition of the Dutch United Provinces and Spain, after plummeting his own country into a severing pit of debt from which they never fully recover. (Rory Keeley)

St. Bartholomew’s Day Massacre: The power of the French Calvinists (Huguenots), who were supported by the Bourbon noble family, began to agitate the Guise noble family, which was Catholic. Thus, the religious conflict between these two groups carried on for 36 years, with August 24, 1572 being marked as a day of overwhelming bloodshed. The conflict began in Paris, and developed because Catherine de Medici, who was desperate to protect the Valois family’s right to the throne, ordered that Huguenot leaders be slaughtered. -Tahira Benjamin

The conflict began, in fact, on the day Catherine's daughter Margaret was to be married to Henry of Navarre (later to become Henry IV of France). Henry was protestant and for that reason there were many protestants at his wedding. In the bloody months that followed Henry IV would be one of the few protestants that Catherine spared as she believed his marriage with her daughter to be a valuable allegiance. Catherine even killed a major protestant leader, Coligny. (Caroline Beuley)

Thirty Years War: Thirty Years War: (1618-1648) Starts as war of religion between the Protestants and Catholics of Bohemia, but ends as a war of hegemony. The war had many players including, Ferdinand, the Catholic, Holy Roman Emperor, and Frederick, a Protestant elector. Ferdinand took issue with Frederick’s illegal ascent to the throne; the two sides decided to meet in order to find a workable solution but no such thing happened. Instead, the meeting became known as the defenestration of Prague. The first phase was the Danish phase, during which King Christian tried to beat Wallenstein, a mercenary hired by Ferdinand; he failed and went back to Denmark. The loses for the protestants were so crippling that Ferdinand is powerful enough to issue the Edict of Restitution, which demanded the return of all lands taken from the Catholics since 1552. The second phase is a bit more intense, with the Swedish king, Gustarus Adolphus, a military genius, fighting on the protestant side. A draw was called at the Battle of Lutzen, but Adolphus dies, and Wallenstein realizes that he is the one who is really in control, not Ferdinand, foreshadowing a turn in the cause of war, from one of religion to one of hegemony. The true hegemonic phase came when Cardinal Richelieu smelled an opportunity to gain notoriety for himself and his country while also weakening the Hapsburg’s, and sent troops to fight. The French won numerous battles, gained some territory, and became the powerhouse of Europe over Spain, which was still too busy worrying about how Catholic people were. -Tahira Benjamin

The results of the Thirty Years War were far-reaching and significant. Germany, where most of the fighting took place, had been demolished (a third of the population killed and the economy in tatters). Its leadership was rendered inert, and this fragmented territory would not unite for two centuries. France became the dominant land power on the European continent (not Spain) and the British and Dutch established themselves as the heads of commercial empires and the prominent forces in the world of European economics. Finally, seeing the devastation of war and the results of the ladder half of the conflict, European nations were largely, from this point forward, only willing to fight for “economic, territorial, or political advantages,” not merely for religious motives. Warfare itself was also revolutionized. –DavisHeniford

The Thirty Years war was one of the most vicious conflicts in all of European history. The war was fought throughout the Holy Roman Empire, and every major European power was involved. Tahira correctly points out that the war started out as a conflict over religion, however it is important keep in mind that the war developed into a conflict chiefly about political issues (namely the Hapsburgs fighting against their many enemies). Consequences of this war included economic depression and a decline in the population of Europe. Our book points that by the end of this war it was apparent that European countries were only willing to fight for “economic, territorial or political” reasons, and no longer over religious ideologies (430). (Connor Haines)

The Thirty Years War transitioned from several different phases as stated previously because the war starts out as a religious conflict. The outcome of the war flip flops from Catholic victory to Protestant victory from 1618-1621. Albrecht von Wallenstein was a key player for Holy Roman Emperor, Ferdinand, and helped establish the conflict as not just religious, but one against the Hapsburgs involving both Catholics and Protestants. (Lauren Burton)

Treaty of Tordesillas (Line of Demarcation) After Christopher Columbus of Spain reached what he thought to be India, and Bartholomeu Dias of Portugal, reached the east coast of Africa, the two empires established the Treaty of Tordesillas to avoid trade conflicts. This treaty, written in 1494, established an imaginary line drawn about 300 miles west of the Azores, that gave Spain everything to the West and Portugal everything to the East. The line was redrawn later once it was discovered how much more land the Spanish had received as a result of this deal. -CarolineBeuley

War of the Three Henrys After the St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre in 1572, Catharine De Medici killed all the major Huguenots in France, except for Henry of Navarre. After the massacre, Henry of Navarre is left fighting for the French throne against Henry III, Catharine's son. However, Catharine threw her support behind Henry of Navarre, betraying her son. Also, another Henry, Henry of Guise, joined in the struggle for the throne, and he was only legitimate because Phillip II supported him. Thus began the War of the Three Henry's. However, after the Spanish Armada of 1588, Phillip could no longer afford to throw his support behind Henry of Guise in the war, and so Henry III sensed this weakness and killed Henry of Guise. Henry of Guise's men then retaliated and murdered Henry III, who on his death bed named Henry of Navarre his heir, Henry IV, King of France, ending the war. (CarterWiles)

This will provide some of the context in which the War of the Three Henrys began: Following the rule of Henry II, France was ruled by a series of three relatively weak kings (Francis II, Charles IX, and Henry III). Catherine de Medici (1519-1589), during this era, is behind the power of the throne as a regent, controlling the power of the kings. During this period, she plays the Huguenots and the Catholics against one another (in a Machiavellian way), switching sides intermittently so as to not give one side too much power. She finally orchestrates a marriage between her daughter, Margaret, a Catholic, and Henry of Navarre, a leader of the Protestants (this could end the fighting!). However, Catherine sees all the Huguenots gathered at her daughter’s wedding, and simply cannot resist orchestrating St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre, where all of the leading protestants died, except Henry of Navarre. The chaos that erupts creates this civil war. -DavisHeniford